1. Cuningham GF, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Rouse D , Spong C. Williams Obstetrics. 23nd ed. New york:
McGRAW-HILL publishing; 2010 , p:210.
2. Jeanjot I, Barlow P, Rozenberg S. Domestic Violence During Pregnancy: Survey of Patientsand Healthcare Providers.
Journal of Women’s Health 2008; 17(4):557-567.
3. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Patient Education pamphelet on Domestic Violence. Oct 2008.
4. Sillman JS, Fletcher SW, Sokol HN. Diagnosing, screening, and counseling for domestic violence. Available at:
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosing-screening-and-counseling-for-domestic-violence page last updated:
5. WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Summary report of initial
results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005.
6. Jennifer G. Intimate Partner Violence. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 2007; 34:376-88.
7. CDC. Violence Prevention. Available at:http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/intimatepartnerviolence/ definitions.html.
Page last updated: June 18, 2009.
8. Sagrestano LM, Carroll D, Rodriguez AC, Nuwayhid B.Demographic, psychological and related factors in domestic
violence during pregnancy in sample of low income women of color. Psychology of Women Quarterly 2004; 28:309-22.
9. Williams CM, Larsen U, McCloskey LA. Intimate partner violence and women's contraceptive use. Violence Against
Woman 2008; 14(12):1382-1396.
10. Quelopana AM, Champion JD, Salazar BC. Health behavior in Mexican pregnant women with a history of violence.
Western Journal of Nursing Research 2008; 30(8):1005-1018.
11. Perales MT, Cripe SM, Lam N, Sanchez SE, Sanchez E, Williams MA. Prevalence, types, and pattern of intimate
partner violence among pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Violence Against Woman 2009; 15(2):224-250.
12. Chan KL, Tiwari A, Fong DY, Leung WC, Brownridge DA, Ho PC. Correlates of in-law conflict and intimate partner
violence against chinese pregnant women in hong kong . Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2009; 24(1):97-110.
13. Johnson JK, Haider F, Ellis K. The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy women. BJOG 2003; 110:272-5.
14. Oyedokun AO. Domestic violence and constrained contraceptive choices in selected areas of Osun State, Nigeria.
Sexual and Relationship Therapy 2008; 23(4):305-323.
15. Faramarzi M, Esmailzadeh S and Mosavi S. Prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence in Babol city,
Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2005; 11(5/6):870-79.
16. Ghahari Sh, Panaghi L, Atef-Vahid MK, Zareii-Doost E and Mohammadi A. Evaluating mental health of spouse
abused women . J Gorgan Uni Med Sci 2007; 8(4):58-63. [In Persian]
17. Salehi SH, Mehrolian HA. The prevalence and types of domestic violence against pregnant women referred to
maternity clinics in Shahrekord, 2003 Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences 2006; 8(2):72-77. [In
18. Narimani M, Aghamohammadian HR. Evaluation of male violence against women and its related variables among
families residing in the city of Ardabil. The Quarterly Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health 2005; 27:107-113. [In
19. Malekafzali Hossein , Mehdizadeh Morteza, Zamani Ahmad Reza, Farajzadegan Ziba. Surveying domestic violence
against women in Isfahan in 2003. Medical science journal of Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Branch 2005;
14(2):63-67. [In Persian]
20. Saberian M, Atash Nafas A, Behnam B. Prevalence of domestic violence in women referred to the heath care centers in
Semnan (2003(. Journal of Semnan University of Medical Sciences 2005; 6(2):115-122. [In Persian]
21. Fisher M, Yassour-Borochowitz D, Neter E. Domestic Abuse in Pregnancy: Results from a Phone Survey. IMAJ
22. Nojomi M, Akrami Z. Domestic violence in pregnancy and it`s maternal and neonatal outcomes. Payesh Health
monitor 2005; 2(1):43-48. [In Persian]
23. Goodwin M, Gazmararian JA, ohnson CH, GilbertBC, SaltzmanLE, Group PW. Pregnancy Intendedness and physical
abuse around the time of pregnancy: Findings from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System,1996-1997.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000; 4(2):85-92.
24. Jasinski JL, Kaufman KG. Pregnancy,stress and wife assaults: Ethnic differences in prevalence ,severity and onset in a
national sample. Violence and Victims 2001; 16(3):1-14.
25. Karmaliani R, Irfan F, Bann C, McClure E, Moss N, Pasha O, Goldenberg R. Domestic violence prior to and during
pregnancy among Pakistani women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2008; 87(11):1194-1201.
26. Naved RT, Persson LA. Factors associated with physical spousal abuse of women during pregnancy in
Bangladesh International Family Planning Perspectives 2009; 34 (2):71-78.
27. Aghakhani K, Aghabeigloie A, Chehraie A. Evaluation of Physical Violence By Spouse Against Womens Refering To
Forensic Medicine Center Of Tehran In Autumn Of 2000. Razi Journal of Medical sciences 2003; 9(31):084-094. [In