شیوع و پیامدهای مرتبط با خشونت جنسی در زنان حوالی منوپوز و بعد از آن: یک مطالعه مرور سیستماتیک

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دکترای بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات سلامت مادر و کودک، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مامایی، دانشکده علوم پزشکی، واحد قم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قم، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات سلامت مادر و کودک، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: خشونت جنسی می‌تواند در هر لحظه از زندگی زنان اتفاق بیفتد و صدمات جسمی، روانی و عاطفی زیادی را به آنها وارد نماید. خشونت جنسی زنان حوالی منوپوز پیامدهای نامطلوب‌تری را برای زنان میانسال، خانواده آنها و جامعه به‌دنبال دارد. مطالعه مروری حاضر با هدف بررسی شیوع و پیامدهای مرتبط با خشونت جنسی در زنان حوالی منوپوز و بعد از آن انجام شد.
روش‌کار: در این مطالعه مروری سیستماتیک، جهت یافتن مقالات مرتبط بانک‌های اطلاعاتی معتبر علمی نظیر PubMed، Scopus، Web of Science، ProQuest، SID و Magiran با استفاده از کلمات ­کلیدی مرتبط جستجو انجام شد. تمام مقالات فارسی و انگلیسی از تاریخ 31 ژانویه 2010 تا 31 ژانویه 2020 که خشونت جنسی را در زنان حوالی منوپوز بررسی کرده بودند؛ وارد مطالعه شدند. تمام مطالعات مشاهده‌ای، از جمله مطالعات توصیفی، توصیفی- تحلیلی، موردی- شاهدی و هم‌گروهی در این مطالعه قرار گرفتند. ارزیابی مقالات بر اساس معیار استروب صورت گرفت. مقالاتی که از کیفیت خوبی برخوردار بودند، وارد مطالعه شدند.
یافته‌ها: در این مطالعه 485 مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که ۷ مقاله شرایط ورود به مطالعه را داشتند. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که میزان شیوع خشونت جنسی در زنان نژادهای مختلف، متغیر بود و با تحصیلات، وضعیت اقتصادی، مصرف سیگار و الکل در ارتباط بود. در زنان حوالی منوپوز دچار خشونت جنسی، خطر پرفشاری خون، بالا بودن نورواندوکرین‌ها و سیتوکین‌های پیش‌التهابی وجود داشت. به‌علاوه افزایش علائم منوپوز مانند مشکلات ادراری، اختلالات خواب، علائم افسردگی و اضطراب، مشکلات واژینال و اختلال عملکرد جنسی با خشونت جنسی ارتباط داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: خشونت جنسی پیامدهای فیزیکی و روانی زیانباری را برای زنان میانسال به‌دنبال دارد. بنابراین، نتایج این تحقیق می‌تواند راهنمایی برای برنامه­ریزان سلامت باشد تا با ارائه برنامه­های مشاوره­ای لازم، بتوانند به کاهش این معضل بهداشتی- اجتماعی و رفع مشکلات ناشی از آن به زنان میانسال کمک کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prevalence and consequences related to sexual violence in perimenopausal women and beyond: A systematic review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboubeh Hajifoghaha 1
  • Shiva Alizadeh 2
  • Seyedeh Samira Mokhlesi 3
  • Fatemeh Dabiri 4
1 Ph.D. in Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Mother and Child Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, School of Medical Sciences, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Mother and Child Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Sexual violence can occur at any time in women's life and cause much physical, psychological and emotional harm for them. Sexual violence against perimenopausal women has more adverse consequences for middle-aged women, their families and society. The present review study was conducted with aim to investigate prevalence and consequences related to sexual violence in perimenopausal women and beyond.
Methods: In this systematic review study, to find the related studies, scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, SID, and Magiran were searched using the related keywords. All Persian and English articles from January 31, 2010 to January 31, 2020 that studied sexual violence in perimenopausal women were included in this study. All observational studies including descriptive, descriptive-analytical, case-control and cohort studies entered in this study. Articles were evaluated according to Strobe criteria. Good quality articles were included in this systematic review.
Results: In this study, 482 articles were reviewed, of which 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of sexual violence in women varied between different races and was associated with education, economic status, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was a risk of hypertension, elevated neuroendocrines, and proinflammatory cytokines in perimenopausal women with sexual violence. Also, increased menopausal symptoms such as urinary symptoms, sleep disorders and symptoms of depression and anxiety, vaginal problems and sexual dysfunction were associated with sexual violence.
Conclusion: Sexual violence has harmful physical and psychological consequences for middle-aged women. Therefore, the results of this study can be a guide for health planners to reduce this health-social problem and solve the related problems by providing the necessary counseling programs in middle-aged women.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • perimenopausal women
  • Sexual Violence
  • Systematic review
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