بررسی میزان اضطراب و استرس درک شده زنان باردار نسبت به بیماری کووید-19 و عوامل مرتبط با آن در شهر کاشان سال 1399

نوع مقاله : اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات پرستاری تروما، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

4 کارشناس مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: وضعیت فعلی و هشدار‌دهنده پاندمی کووید-19 ممکن است باعث ایجاد استرس، اضطراب در زنان باردار شود. با توجه به شیوع بالای بیماری در شهر کاشان، مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین میزان اضطراب و استرس درک شده زنان باردار نسبت به بیماری کووید-19 و عوامل مرتبط با آن انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این پژوهش توصیفی مقطعی در سال 1399 بر روی 360 زن باردار توسط پرسشنامه الکترونیکی در شهر کاشان انجام شد. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها در این مطالعه، پرسشنامه اطلاعات دموگرافیک- باروری، سؤالات مربوط به بیماری کووید-19، مقیاس اضطراب کرونا ویروس (محدوده نمره 54-0) و پرسشنامه استرس درک شده کوهن (محدوده نمره 56-0) بود. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 16) و آزمون‌های آماری تی، آنووا، رگرسیون خطی و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون انجام گرفت. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: نمره‌ کل اضطراب زنان باردار در رابطه با بیماری کرونا 48/12±71/18 و نمره استرس ادراک شده 00/7±57/24 بود. بر اساس نتایج آزمون رگرسیون خطی، شغل فرد، مشکلات حین بارداری، سابقه زایمان، ابتلاء اعضای خانواده به کرونا و نگرانی جهت پیامدهای بیماری برای خود و نوزاد، متغیرهای پیش‌بینی‌کننده نمره استرس درک‌ شده و متغیرهای ابتلاء خانواده به کرونا و وجود نگرانی در مورد ابتلاء خود و نوزاد، نگرانی برای دریافت مراقبت‌های بارداری و وجود مشکلات حین بارداری، پیش‌بینی‌کننده نمره اضطراب در زنان باردار بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: میزان اضطراب و استرس زنان باردار در دوران پاندمی کووید-19 بالا بود و زنان نگرانی‌های زیادی در رابطه با ابتلاء خود و نوزاد و یا مراجعه جهت دریافت مراقبت‌های دوران بارداری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Anxiety and perceived stress of pregnant women towards Covid-19 disease and its related factors in Kashan (2020)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi 1
  • Zahra Karimian 2
  • Saeideh Nasiri 3
  • Melika Sadat Khorshidifard 4
1 Associate Professor, Department of Midwifery, Trauma Nursing Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
3 PhD student of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
4 B.Sc. of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The current and alarming condition of Covid-19 pandemic may cause stress and anxiety in pregnant women. Due to the high prevalence of the disease in Kashan, this study was performed with aim to determine the anxiety and perceived stress of pregnant women toward Covid-19 and its related factors.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2020 on 360 pregnant women by electronic questionnaire in Kashan. Data collection tools were demographic-fertility information questionnaire, the questions related to Covid-19 disease, coronavirus anxiety scale (score range: 0-54) and Cohen perceived stress questionnaire (score range: 0-56). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16) and statistical tests of t-test, ANOVA, linear regression and Pearson correlation coefficient. P Results: The total anxiety score of pregnant women in relation to Covid-19 disease was 18.71 ±12.48 and the perceived stress score was 24.57±7.00. Linear regression test showed that person's job, problems during pregnancy, delivery history, family members infection with coronavirus and concern about the consequences of the disease for themselves and the infant were the predictive variables of perceived stress score; and the variables of family members infection with coronavirus, concerns about infection of themselves and the infant, concern about receiving prenatal care, and the presence of problems during pregnancy were the predictors of anxiety scores in pregnant women.
Conclusion: The level of anxiety and stress of pregnant women was high during the Covid-19 pandemic and women had many concerns about infecting themselves and the infant or referring to receive prenatal care.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anxiety
  • COVID-19
  • Perceived stress
  • pregnancy
  1. Marshall JE, Raynor MD. Myles' Textbook for Midwives E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
  2. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Fredrickson BL, Loftus GR, Lutz Ch. Atkinson and Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology. 16nd ed. Cengage Learning; 2014.
  3. Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai AC, Zhou J, et al. Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends in microbiology 2016; 24(6):490-502.
  4. WHO guidelines for the global surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). World Health Organization; 2004.
  5. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet 2020; 395(10223):497-506.
  6. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. International journal of antimicrobial agents 2020; 55(3):105924.
  7. Bajema KL, Oster AM, McGovern OL, Lindstrom S, Stenger MR, Anderson TC, et al. Persons evaluated for 2019 novel coronavirus-United States, January 2020. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 2020; 69(6):166-70.
  8. Swartz D, Graham A. Potential maternal and infant outcomes from coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) infecting pregnant women: lessons from SARS, MERS, and other human coronavirus infections. Viruses 2020; 12(2):194.
  9. Corbett GA, Milne SJ, Hehir MP, Lindow SW, O’connell MP. Health anxiety and behavioural changes of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2020; 249:96-7.
  10. Fakari FR, Simbar M. Coronavirus pandemic and worries during pregnancy; a letter to editor. Archives of academic emergency medicine 2020; 8(1):e21-.
  11. Alder J, Fink N, Bitzer J, Hösli I, Holzgreve W. Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: a risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2007; 20(3):189-209.
  12. Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Figueiredo B, Deeds O, Ascencio A, et al. Comorbid depression and anxiety effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Infant Behavior and Development 2010; 33(1):23-9.
  13. Grigoriadis S, Graves L, Peer M, Mamisashvili L, Tomlinson G, Vigod SN, et al. Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and the association with adverse perinatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2018; 79(5).
  14. Ng J, Sham A, Tang PL, Fung S. SARS: pregnant women's fears and perceptions. British Journal of Midwifery 2004; 12(11):698-702.
  15. Qiao Y, Wang J, Li J, Wang J. Effects of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy on pregnant, obstetric and neonatal outcomes: a follow-up study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2012; 32(3):237-40.
  16. Durankuş F, Aksu E. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: a preliminary study. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2020: 1-7.
  17. Kotabagi P, Fortune L, Essien S, Nauta M, Yoong W. Anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women with COVID‐19. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 2020; 99(7):953-4.
  18. Alipour A, Ghadami A, Alipour Z, Abdollahzadeh H. Preliminary validation of the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in the Iranian sample. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology 2020; 8(32):163-75.
  19. Asghari F, Sadeghi A, Aslani K, Saadat S, Khodayari H. The survey of relationship between perceived stress coping strategies and suicide ideation among students at University of Guilan, Iran. International Journal of Education and Research 2013; 1(11):111-8.
  20. Dagklis T, Tsakiridis I, Mamopoulos A, Athanasiadis A, Papazisis G. Anxiety during pregnancy in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Available at SSRN 3588542; 2020.
  21. Lee DT, Sahota D, Leung TN, Yip AS, Lee FF, Chung TK. Psychological responses of pregnant women to an infectious outbreak: a case-control study of the 2003 SARS outbreak in Hong Kong. Journal of psychosomatic research 2006; 61(5):707-13.
  22. Zareipour M, Sadeghianifar A, Amirzehni J, Parsnezhad M, Ayuoghi Rahnema V. Exploring of depression, anxiety and stress in pregnant women referred to health centers of urmia. Rahavard Salamat Journal 2018; 3(2):19-30.
  23. Robinson AM, Benzies KM, Cairns SL, Fung T, Tough SC. Who is distressed? A comparison of psychosocial stress in pregnancy across seven ethnicities. BMC pregnancy and childbirth 2016; 16(1):1-11.
  24. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 11nd ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer; 2014.
  25. Wu Y, Zhang C, Liu H, Duan C, Li C, Fan J, et al. Perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms of pregnant women along with COVID-19 outbreak in China. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; 223(2):240.e1–240.e9.
  26. Taylor S, Asmundson GJG. Treating health anxiety: A cognitive-behavioral approach. 1nd ed. The Guilford Press; 2004.
  27. Azizi M, Nezami L. Predicting postpartum depression based on perceived stress and styles of coping with stress among pregnant women in Tabriz. Thoughts and Behavior in Clinical Psychology 2015; 10(37):67-76.