بررسی ابعاد سازههای الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی در رابطه با رفتارهای بهداشتی دهان و دندان در زنان باردار شهر کرمان در سال 1397 (یک مطالعه مقطعی-توصیفی)

نوع مقاله : اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه سلامت دهان و دندان‌پزشکی اجتماعی، مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت دهان و دندان، دانشکده دندان‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه آسیب‌شناسی دهان، فک و صورت، مرکز تحقیقات بیماری‌های دهان و دندان، دانشکده دندان‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: توجه به بهداشت دهان و دندان در گروه‌های آسیب‌پذیر از جمله زنان باردار برای حفظ سلامت مادر و جنین از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین ابعاد سازه‌های الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی در رابطه با رفتارهای بهداشتی دهان و دندان در زنان باردار شهر کرمان انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه توصیفی، تحلیلی و مقطعی در سال 1397 بر روی 138 زن باردار مراجعه‌کننده به مراکز بهداشتی درمانی شهر کرمان انجام شد. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها، پرسشنامه‌ای محقق‌ساخته بر اساس الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی و متشکل از 4 بخش اطلاعات فردی، وضعیت رعایت بهداشت، الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی و ارزیابی شاخص پلاک لثه‌ای به‌روش سیلنس- لو بود. فراوانی و فراوانی نسبی برای هر کدام از متغیرها محاسبه شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 19) و آنالیز رگرسیون خطی، آنوا و تی تست انجام گرفت. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: میانگین و انحراف معیار شاخص پلاک افراد 62/0±16/1، نمره رعایت بهداشت 04/2±49/13 و نمره کل پرسشنامه مدل اعتقاد بهداشتی 84/11±70/130 بود. شاخص پلاک با منافع درک شده ارتباط آماری معنی‌داری داشت (05/0>p). بین الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی افراد با سطح سواد، هفته بارداری و نوع بیمه ارتباط معناداری وجود داشت (05/0>p). همچنین بین سطح سواد و هفته بارداری با وضعیت رعایت بهداشت ارتباط آماری معناداری مشاهده شد (05/0>p).
نتیجه‌گیری: عملکرد بهداشتی و شاخص پلاک دندانی زنان باردار در محدوده متوسط قرار دارد که در نتیجه ترس از اقدامات دندان‌پزشکی می‌باشد. نمره کلی الگوی اعتقاد بهداشتی افراد نیز در محدوده متوسط قرار دارد. بنابراین توجه به جنبه‌های اعتقادی و بهداشتی مراقبت در بارداری و آموزش‌های لازم در این زمینه ضروری بوده و توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Dimensions of Health Belief Model Structures Related to Oral Health Behaviors aomng Pregnant Women in Kerman City in 2018 (A cross-sectional descriptive study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Najminouri 1
  • Molook Torabi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Health and Community Dentistry, Social Determinants on Oral Health Research Center, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Paying attention to dental and oral hygiene in vulnerable groups, including pregnant women, is important for protecting and maintaining maternal and fetal health. This study was performed with aim to determine the dimensions of health belief model Structures related to oral health behaviors among pregnant women in Kerman city.
Methods: This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was performed on 138 pregnant women in health centers of Kerman city in 2018. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire based on health belief model consisting of four sections: demographic information, oral hygiene status, health belief model and assessment of gingival plaque index by Silness and loe Method. Frequency and relative frequency were calculated for each of the variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 19) and linear regression analysis and t-test. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of participants' plaque index was 1.16±0.62, oral hygiene score was 13.49±2.04 and total score of health belief model questionnaire was 130.70±11.84. 61. The plaque index had significant relationship with perceived benefit (p<0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between health belief model with education level, pregnancy week and type of insurance (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between oral hygiene status with education level and pregnancy week (p<0.05)
Conclusion:Health performance and dental plaque index of pregnant women are in moderate range which is the result of fear from dental procedures. The total score of people's health belief model is also in the moderate range. So, attention to the beliefs and health aspects of pregnancy care and necessary education in this area is necessary and recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • health behaviors
  • Oral Health
  • pregnancy
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