تأثیر تمرینات هوازی با شدت‌های ثابت و متغیر بر ترکیب بدن، برخی از عوامل فیزیولوژیک و انعقادی زنان میانسال دارای اضافه وزن

نوع مقاله : اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: فیبرینوژن یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل التهابی و شاخص پیش‌بینی ‌کننده در بیماری‌های قلبی - عروقی است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر تمرینات هوازی با شدت‌های ثابت و متغیر بر ترکیب بدن و برخی عوامل فیزیولوژیک و انعقادی زنان میانسال دارای اضافه وزن انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه کاربردی و به‌روش نیمه‌تجربی در سال 1394 بر روی 30 زن در سه گروه 10 نفره تمرین هوازی با شدت ثابت، شدت متغیر و کنترل در شهرستان بجنورد انجام شد. برنامه تمرین هوازی شامل 8 هفته تمرین هوازی، 30 دقیقه فعالیت هوازی با شدت ثابت معادل 60% ضربان قلب و با شدت متغیر شامل 2 دقیقه رکاب زدن با شدت 50% حداکثر ضربان قلب و 1 دقیقه رکاب زدن با شدت 70% حداکثر ضربان قلب بود. سطوح فیبرینوژن، PT، PTT، تعداد پلاکت‌ها و  فاکتور غیرانعقادی در 24 ساعت قبل و 48 ساعت بعد از جلسه تمرین جمع‌آوری شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 25) و آزمون‌های تی همبسته، تحلیل آنالیز کواریانس (ANCOVA) و آزمون تعقیبی توکی به‌ترتیب برای تغییرات درون‌گروهی و بین‌گروهی انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: وزن (شدت ثابت 001/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p)، شاخص توده بدنی (شدت ثابت 001/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p)، فشارخون سیستولی (شدت ثابت 03/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p) و فشارخون دیاستولی (شدت ثابت 001/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p) کاهش معنی‌داری یافت؛ در‌صورتی‌که درصد چربی بدن فقط در گروه تمرین هوازی با شدت ثابت کاهش معنی‌داری یافت (001/=p). زمان پروترومبین (شدت ثابت 004/0=p و شدت متغیر 009/0=p)، زمان نسبی ترومبوپلاستین  (شدت ثابت 005/0=p و شدت متغیر 01/0=p)، فیبرینوژن (شدت ثابت 001/0=p و شدت متغیر 02/0=p) و تعداد پلاکت‌ها (شدت ثابت 02/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p)، کاهش معنی‌داری یافت؛ در‌صورتی‌که فاکتور غیرانعقادی در هر دو گروه تمرین هوازی با شدت ثابت و متغیر افزایش معنی‌داری یافت (شدت ثابت 003/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p). میزان انعطاف‌پذیری (شدت ثابت 003/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p) و حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی (شدت ثابت 001/0=p و شدت متغیر 001/0=p) در هر دو گروه تمرین هوازی با شدت ثابت و متغیر افزایش معنی‌داری یافت.
نتیجه‌گیری: 8 هفته تمرین هوازی با دو شدت ثابت و متغیر از طریق کاهش شاخص‌های ترکیب بدن، فاکتورهای انعقادی و افزایش شاخص‌های آمادگی جسمانی در زنان دارای اضافه وزن می‌تواند احتمالاً در بهبود سلامت قلب و عروق و کاهش التهاب مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Aerobic Exercise with Constant and Variable Intensities on Body Composition, Some Physiological Indicators and Coagulation Factors in Middle Aged Overweight Women

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahnaz Mohammad Doost 1
  • Mehrdad Fathi 2
  • Keyvan Hejazi 3
1 M.Sc. of Exercise Physiology, School of Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd Branch, Bojnourd, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Fibrinogen is one of the most important inflammation factors and a prediction index in cardio vascular diseases. This study was performed with aim to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise with constant and variable intensities on body composition and some physiological indicators and coagulation factors in middle aged overweight women.
Methods: This semi-experimental and practical study was performed in 2015 on 30 women in three groups: aerobic exercise with constant intensity (n=10), variable intensity (n=10) and control (n=10) in the city of Bojnourd. The aerobic training program included eight weeks of aerobic training, 30 minutes of aerobic training with a constant intensity with 60% of heart rate and variable intensity included 2 minutes of bike pedaling with 50% of maximal heart rate and 1 minute of bike pedaling with 70% of maximal heart rate. The levels of fibrinogen, PT, PTT, platelet count and non-coagulation factor were collected 24 hours before and 48 hours after the training session. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 25) and dependent t-test, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and tukey post hoc test for intra-group and inter-group changes, respectively. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant
Results: Weight (constant intensity, P=0.001 and variable intensity, P=0.001), body mass index (constant intensity, P=0.001 and variable intensity, P=0.001), systolic (constant intensity, P=0.03 and variable intensity, P=0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (constant intensity, P=0.001 and variable intensity, P=0.001) decreased significantly in both groups. However, body fat percentage decreased significantly only in the constant intensity group (P=0.001). Prothrombin time (PT) (constant intensity, P=0.004 and variable intensity, P=0.009), thromboplastin time (PTT) (constant intensity, P=0.005 and variable intensity, P=0.01), fibrinogen (constant intensity, P=0.001 and variable intensity, P=0.02), and platelet counts (constant intensity, P=0.02 and variable intensity, P=0.001) significantly decreased in both groups. However, non-coagulation factor significantly increased in both groups (constant intensity, P=0.003 and variable intensity, P=0.001). The amount of flexibility (constant intensity, P=0.003 and variable intensity, P=0.001) and maximal oxygen consumption (constant intensity, P=0.001 and variable intensity, P=0.001) increased significantly in both groups
Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic training with two constant and variable intensities by reducing body composition indices, coagulation factors and increasing fitness indices in overweight women can possibly improve cardiovascular health and reduce inflammation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aerobic training
  • blood pressure
  • Fibrinogen
  • Overweight women
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