فضای سبز و زایمان زودرس: یک مطالعه مرور سیستماتیک

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پزشکی، کارگروه دانشجویی مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه بهداشت محیط، مرکز تحقیقات بیماری‌های غیرواگیر، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی سبزوار، سبزوار، ایران.

3 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی سبزوار، سبزوار، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات توسعه اجتماعی و ارتقای سلامت، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: تأثیر محیط زیست بر سلامت باروری و نتایج بارداری در تعدادی از مطالعات اپیدمیولوژیک بیان شده است. قرار گرفتن در معرض فضای سبز منجر به بهبودی سلامت و همچنین بهبود رشد جنین و کاهش خطر عوارض حاملگی شده است. مطالعه مرور سیستماتیک حاضر با هدف تعیین ارتباط بین فضای سبز و زایمان زودرس انجام شد.
روش‌کار: در این مطالعه مروری جهت دستیابی به مطالعات مرتبط از پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی انگلیسی Pubmed، Scopus و Web of science و فارسی Iran Medex، SID و Magiran منتشر شده تا 8 آوریل 2020، با کلیدواژه‌های فارسی و انگلیسی فضای سبز و زایمان زودرس با تمام ترکیبات احتمالی جستجو انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: از مجموع 6964 مقاله، 18 مقاله (12 مطالعه مقطعی و 6 مطالعه کوهورت) که دارای معیار ورود به مطالعه بودند، مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. اکثر مطالعات با استفاده از شاخص نرمال ‌شده تفاوت پوشش گیاهی (NDVI)، نزدیکی به فضای سبز و فاصله تا پارک، فضای سبز را ارزیابی کرده بودند. نتایج 9 مطالعه نشان داد که بین فضای سبز و زایمان زودرس ارتباطی وجود ندارد و سایر مطالعات نتایج ضدونقیض اثر محافظتی فضای سبز بر زایمان زودرس را بیان کرده بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتیجه اکثر مطالعات حاکی از عدم ارتباط فضای سبز و زایمان زودرس و سن حاملگی در زمان زایمان بود. در‌حالی‌که تعدادی از مطالعات نتایج ضدونقیضی در مورد اثر محافظتی فضای سبز بر زایمان زودرس گزارش کردند. از این رو پیشنهاد می­شود مطالعات بیشتری در این زمینه انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Green space and preterm birth: A systematic review study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasim Sadat Pajohanfar 1
  • Mohammad Miri 2
  • Saiedeh Mehrabadi 3
  • Roghaieh Rahmani Bilandi 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, Student workgroup of Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
2 Assistant professor, Department of Environmental Health, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, School of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.
3 M.Sc. of Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.
4 Assistant professor, Department of Midwifery, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The effect of environment on reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes has been expressed in some epidemiological studies. Exposure to green space has been shown to improve health as well as improve fetal growth and reduce the risk of pregnancy complications. This systematic review study was performed with aim to determine the relationship between green space and preterm birth.
Methods: In this review study, to obtain relevant studies, we searched the English databases of Pubmed, Scopus, Web of science and Persian databases of Iran Medex, SID and Magiran published until 8 April 2020, with the English and Persian keywords of green space and preterm birth and all possible combinations.
Results: From 6964 articles, 18 (12 cross-sectional studies and 6 cohort studies) which met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Most studies evaluated green space using the normalized Index of Vegetation Difference (NDVI), proximity to green space, and distance to the park. The results of 9 studies showed no relationship between green space and preterm birth, and other studies reported conflicting results on protective effect of green space on preterm birth.
Conclusion: The results of most studies showed no association between green space and preterm birth and gestational age at delivery time. While some studies reported conflicting results on protective effect of green space on preterm birth. Therefore, it is suggested that further studies be conducted in this area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gestational Age
  • Green space
  • Preterm Birth
  1. Seyed Hashemi E, Dargahi R, Entezari M, Hosseini Asl SS. Expression of miR200a as a biomarker in women with preterm delivery. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2019; 22(7):39-46.
  2. Lotfalizadeh M, Khademi Z, Maleki A, Najaf Najafi M. Comparison of the duration of pregnancy in administration of progesterone suppository and Duphaston tablet in pregnant women with preterm labor after stopping delivery process. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2019; 22(10):1-1.
  3. Kamali Fard M, Alizadeh R, Sehati Shafaei F, Gojazadeh M. The effect of lifestyle on the rate of preterm birth. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2010; 10(1):55-63.
  4. Jain S, Earhart A, Ruddock N, Wen T, Hankins GD, Saade GR. The validity of cervical dilation as an indication of true labor between 32 and 36 weeks 6 days of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197(4):431.e1-3.
  5. Pates JA, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. Uterine contractions preceding labor. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110(3):566-9.
  6. Iams JD, Romero R, Culhane JF, Goldenberg RL. Primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm birth. Lancet 2008; 371(9607):164-75.
  7. Purisch SE, Gyamfi-Bannerman C. Epidemiology of preterm birth. Semin Perinatol 2017; 41(7):387-391.
  8. Chehreh R, Karamolahi Z, Aevazi A, Borji M, Saffar A. Prevalence of Preterm Birth Recurrence and Related Factors in Ilam %J. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2018;21(10):20-9.
  9. Davari Tanha F, Valadan M, Kave M, Bagher zadeh Jalilvands HM. Prevalence and risk factors of recurrent preterm delivery in three hospitals of Tehran University. Journal of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2007;65(2):34-9.
  10. Sohrabi D, Ghanbari Gorgani M. A survey on Risk factors and outcomes of women with preterm labor admitted to Valieasr hospital in Zanjan. Nursing and Midwifery Journal 2011;9(2).
  11. Lotfalizadeh M, Mohammadzadeh A, Kamandi Sh, Bagheri S. Prevalence and risk factors of preterm labor in Imam Reza Hospital 2003-2004. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2005; 8(2):93-100.
  12. Shoja M, Shoja E, Gharaei M. Prevalence and affecting factors on preterm birth in pregnant women Referred to Bentolhoda hospital-Bojnurd. JNKUMS 2016; 7(4):855-63.
  13. Tellapragada C, Eshwara VK, Bhat P, Acharya S, Kamath A, Bhat S, et al. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Indian Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Study. J Prev Med Public Health 2016; 49(3):165-75.
  14. Cunningham FG, Kenneth J, Bloom SL, Spong CY, Dash JS, Hoffman BL, et al. Williams obstetrics. 24nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
  15. Meis PJ, Goldenberg RL, Mercer BM, Iams JD, Moawad AH, Miodovnik M, et al. The preterm prediction study: risk factors for indicated preterm births. Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 178(3):562-7.
  16. Passini R Jr, Cecatti JG, Lajos GJ, Tedesco RP, Nomura ML, Dias TZ, et al. Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth study group. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP): prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109069.
  17. Leal MD, Esteves-Pereira AP, Nakamura-Pereira M, Torres JA, Theme-Filha M, Domingues RM, et al. Prevalence and risk factors related to preterm birth in Brazil. Reprod Health 2016; 13(Suppl 3):127.
  18. Lim K, Butt K, Crane JM, Morin L. Ultrasonographic cervical length assessment in predicting preterm birth in singleton pregnancies. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 2011; 33(5):486-99.
  19. Blumenshine P, Egerter S, Barclay CJ, Cubbin C, Braveman PA. Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2010; 39(3):263-72.
  20. Stillerman KP, Mattison DR, Giudice LC, Woodruff TJ. Environmental exposures and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review of the science. Reprod Sci 2008; 15(7):631-50.
  21. United States Environmental Protection Agency. What is Open Space/Green Space? 2014 [Available from: http://www.epa.gov/region1/eco/uep/openspace.html.
  22. de Prado Bert P, Miri M, Alahabadi A, Rad A, Moslem A, Agah J, et al. Exposure to Greenspace and Telomere Length in Preschool Children. Environmental Epidemiology 2019; 3:92.
  23. Rahmani Sani A, Abroudi M, Heydari H, Adli A, Miri M, Mehrabadi S, et al. Maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter and green spaces and fetal renal function. Environ Res 2020; 184:109285.
  24. Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali LM, Knight TM, Pullin AS. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health 2010; 10:456.
  25. Gill SE, Handley JF, Ennos AR, Pauleit S. Adapting cities for climate change: the role of the green infrastructure. Built Environment 2007;33(1):115-33.
  26. Lee AC, Maheswaran R. The health benefits of urban green spaces: a review of the evidence. J Public Health (Oxf) 2011; 33(2):212-22.
  27. Agyemang C, van Hooijdonk C, Wendel-Vos W, Ujcic-Voortman JK, Lindeman E, Stronks K, et al. Ethnic differences in the effect of environmental stressors on blood pressure and hypertension in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health 2007;7:118.
  28. Villeneuve PJ, Jerrett M, Su JG, Burnett RT, Chen H, Wheeler AJ, et al. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada. Environ Res 2012; 115:51-8.
  29. Zhan Y, Si M, Li M, Jiang Y. The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection for adverse pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Helicobacter 2019; 24(2):e12562.
  30. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000; 283(15):2008-12.
  31. Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD, Dimitrakova ED. Association between residential greenness and birth weight: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2014; 13(4):621-9.
  32. Twohig-Bennett C, Jones A. The health benefits of the great outdoors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes. Environ Res 2018; 166:628-637.
  33. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP; STROBE Initiative. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61(4):344-9.
  34. Dzhambov AM, Markevych I, Lercher P. Associations of residential greenness, traffic noise, and air pollution with birth outcomes across Alpine areas. Sci Total Environ 2019; 678:399-408.
  35. Asta F, Michelozzi P, Cesaroni G, De Sario M, Badaloni C, Davoli M, et al. The Modifying Role of Socioeconomic Position and Greenness on the Short-Term Effect of Heat and Air Pollution on Preterm Births in Rome, 2001-2013. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019; 16(14):2497.
  36. Glazer KB, Eliot MN, Danilack VA, Carlson L, Phipps MG, Dadvand P, et al. Residential green space and birth outcomes in a coastal setting. Environ Res 2018; 163:97-107.
  37. Agay-Shay K, Michael Y, Basagaña X, Martínez-Solanas È, Broday D, Lensky IM, et al. Mean and variance of greenness and pregnancy outcomes in Tel Aviv during 2000–14: longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches. International journal of epidemiology 2019; 48(4):1054-72.
  38. Casey JA, James P, Rudolph KE, Wu CD, Schwartz BS. Greenness and Birth Outcomes in a Range of Pennsylvania Communities. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13(3):311.
  39. Grazuleviciene R, Danileviciute A, Dedele A, Vencloviene J, Andrusaityte S, Uždanaviciute I, et al. Surrounding greenness, proximity to city parks and pregnancy outcomes in Kaunas cohort study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2015; 218(3):358-65.
  40. Hystad P, Davies HW, Frank L, Van Loon J, Gehring U, Tamburic L, et al. Residential greenness and birth outcomes: evaluating the influence of spatially correlated built-environment factors. Environ Health Perspect 2014; 122(10):1095-102.
  41. Laurent O, Wu J, Li L, Milesi C. Green spaces and pregnancy outcomes in Southern California. Health Place 2013; 24:190-5.
  42. Cusack L, Larkin A, Carozza S, Hystad P. Associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes across Texas. Environ Res 2017; 152:88-95.
  43. Agay-Shay K, Peled A, Crespo AV, Peretz C, Amitai Y, Linn S, et al. Green spaces and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Occup Environ Med 2014; 71(8):562-9.
  44. Dadvand P, de Nazelle A, Figueras F, Basagaña X, Su J, Amoly E, et al. Green space, health inequality and pregnancy. Environ Int 2012; 40:110-115.
  45. Dadvand P, Sunyer J, Basagaña X, Ballester F, Lertxundi A, Fernández-Somoano A, et al. Surrounding greenness and pregnancy outcomes in four Spanish birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120(10):1481-7.
  46. Abelt K, McLafferty S. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14(7):771.
  47. Donovan GH, Michael YL, Butry DT, Sullivan AD, Chase JM. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes. Health Place 2011; 17(1):390-3.
  48. Ogneva-Himmelberger Y, Dahlberg T, Kelly K, Simas TAM. Using Geographic Information Science to Explore Associations between Air Pollution, Environmental Amenities, and Preterm Births. AIMS Public Health 2015; 2(3):469-486.
  49. Nichani V, Dirks K, Burns B, Bird A, Morton S, Grant C. Green space and pregnancy outcomes: Evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand. Health & place 2017; 46:21-28.
  50. Rappazzo KM, Messer LC, Jagai JS, Gray CL, Grabich SC, Lobdell DT. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis. Environ Health 2015; 14:50.
  51. Lotfalizadeh M, Teymoori M. Comparison of Nifedipine and Magnesium Sulfate in the Treatment of Preterm. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2010; 13(2):7-12.
  52. Dadvand P, Wright J, Martinez D, Basagaña X, McEachan RR, Cirach M, et al. Inequality, green spaces, and pregnant women: roles of ethnicity and individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. Environ Int 2014; 71:101-8.
  53. Banay RF, Bezold CP, James P, Hart JE, Laden F. Residential greenness: current perspectives on its impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Int J Womens Health. 2017; 9:133-144.
  54. Cusack L, Larkin A, Carozza SE, Hystad P. Associations between multiple green space measures and birth weight across two US cities. Health Place. 2017; 47:36-43.
  55. Mitchell R, Astell-Burt T, Richardson EA. A comparison of green space indicators for epidemiological research. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011; 65(10):853-8.
  56. Hobel CJ, Goldstein A, Barrett ES. Psychosocial stress and pregnancy outcome. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008; 51(2):333-48.
  57. Wainstock T, Shoham-Vardi I, Glasser S, Anteby E, Lerner-Geva L. Fetal sex modifies effects of prenatal stress exposure and adverse birth outcomes. Stress 2015; 18(1):49-56.
  58. Takito MY, Benício MH. Physical activity during pregnancy and fetal outcomes: a case-control study. Rev Saude Publica 2010; 44(1):90-101.
  59. McCormack GR, Rock M, Toohey AM, Hignell D. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research. Health Place 2010; 16(4):712-26.