روش های طبیعی مؤثر بر انتخاب جنسیت جنین و ملاحظات اخلاقی مرتبط: مطالعه مروری روایتی

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره در مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: از دیرباز زوجین به دنبال روش‌هایی برای اثرگذاری بر جنسیت فرزند بوده اند. اگرچه برخی از این روش‌ها برگرفته از عقاید خرافی بوده و هیچگونه پایه علمی نداشتند، اما امروزه شواهد مستند علمی وجود دارند که نشان‌دهنده تأثیر برخی از آن‌ها بر انتخاب جنسیت می‌باشند. روش‌های انتخاب جنسیت جنین به دو دسته کلی روش‌های پیش از بارداری (تکنولوژیک و طبیعی) و پس از بارداری تقسیم می‌شوند. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی روش‌های طبیعی مؤثر بر انتخاب جنسیت جنین و ملاحظات اخلاقی آن انجام شد.
روش کار: در این مطالعه مروری روایتی، مروری جامع با استفاده از پایگاه‌های بین المللی Pubmed،Science Direct، Google Scholar و SID از سال 1940 تا 2015 انجام گرفتو تنها مقالات فارسی و انگلیسی بررسی شدند. کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی شامل Sex Preselection، Sex Ratio و Sex Selection و کلمات کلیدی فارسی شامل انتخاب جنسیت پیش از بارداریو نسبت جنسیت و انتخاب جنسیت بود.
یافته ها: یافته های مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که روش‌های طبیعی انتخاب جنسیت جنین بر پایه زمان‌بندی نزدیکی، PH واژن و دوش های واژینال، وضعیت دخول، ارگاسم، فواصل نزدیکی و امتناع از آن و رژیم غذایی مادر می‌باشند، اگرچه عوامل اثرگذار دیگری نیز وجود دارند. نظرات اخلاق شناسان زیستی، مذاهب و سازمان های پزشکی تخصصی در زمینه انتخاب جنسیت جنین بسیار متفاوت می‌باشد.
نتیجه گیری: روش‌های طبیعی انتخاب جنسیت جنین پیش از بارداری به عنوان روش‌هایی ساده و ارزان، می‌توانند بر جنسیت جنین تأثیرگذار باشند. ادغام این روش‌ها یقینا می‌تواند راهکاری مناسب برای افزایش احتمال داشتن فرزندی با جنسیت دلخواه شود. با این وجود، مطالعات کارآزمایی بالینی وسیع تر می تواند شواهد کامل تری را ارائه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Natural Effective Sex Selection Methods and the Ethical Considerations: A Narrative Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoomeh Yazdani Aliabadi 1
  • Mozhgan JavadNoori 2
1 M.Sc. student of Counseling in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz JundiShapur university of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Assistant professor, Department of Midwifery, Reproduction Health promotion Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz JundiShapur university of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Since ancient times, couples have been trying to choose the sex of offspring. Although some of these methods derived from superstitious beliefs and had no scientific basis, but there is now scientific documented evidence that demonstrates the impact of some of them on sex selection. Sex selection methods classified into two general categories, preconception methods (technological and natural) and post conception methods. This study was performed with aim to determine the natural effective sex selection methods and the related ethical considerations.
Methods: In this narrative review study, a comprehensive review of databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and SID from 1940 to 2015 was conducted and only Persian and English articles were evaluated. Keywords included Sex Preselection, Sex Ratio and Sex Selection.
Results: The findings of the present study show that natural sex selection methods are based on timing of insemination, vaginal PH and douching, position and penetration, orgasm, frequency of intercourse and abstinence and maternal diet. Although there are some other influencing factors. Bioethicists, religions, and professional medical organizations’ opinions about sex selection are very different.
Conclusion: The natural sex Preselection methods as inexpensive and simple approach can influence the sex of the fetus. Integrating these methods can certainly raise the probability of conceiving babies of the desired sex. Nevertheless, large randomized clinical trials could provide more definitive evidence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sex Preselection
  • Sex ratio
  • Sex Selection
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