ضرورت آموزش سلامت جنسی به دختران نوجوان در ایران: یک مطالعه کیفی

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات ایمنی بیمار و ارتقاء کیفیت سلامت، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 مربی گروه مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران. دانشجوی دکتری بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه کودکان، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت های پرستاری و مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

4 استاد گروه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت، مرکز تحقیقات علوم بهداشتی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان، همدان، ایران

5 ستادیار گروه اپیدمیولوژی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم بهداشتی،دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: آموزش سلامت جنسی در بسیاری از فرهنگ ها با چالش هایی رو به رو است. با وجودی که نوجوانان ایرانی به ویژه
دختران، نیازهای آموزشی برآورده نشده زیادی در زمینه سلامت جنسی دارند؛ لزوم آموزش سلامت جنسی به نوجوانان به
دلیل چالش های عمدتاً فرهنگی- اجتماعی موضوعی مجادله برانگیز است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی عمیق دیدگاه ها و
تجربیات دختران نوجوان و بزرگسالان در زمینه ضرورت آموزش سلامت جنسی به دختران نوجوان انجام شد.
روش کار: مطالعه حاضر از نوع تحلیل محتوای کیفی است که در سال 1389-90 بر روی دختران نوجوان و بزرگسالان
دارای نقش کلیدی انجام شد. داده های کیفی با مصاحبه عمیق فردی و بحث گروهی متمرکز با دختران نوجوان،
مادران، مسئولان استانی در سازمان آموزش و پرورش و بهداشت و درمان، ماماهای مراکز بهداشتی، معلمان و مشاوران
مدارس و روحانیون در شهرهای مشهد و اهواز جمع آوری و به روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی مرسوم و با استفاده از نرم
افزار تحلیل داده های کیفی MAXqda مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته ها: مهمترین دلایل ضرورت آموزش سلامت جنسی به دختران نوجوان در 5 طبقه: فقدان دانش و نگرش صحیح
جنسی، بدآموزی و وجود منابع نادرست آگاهی جنسی، تحولات فرهنگی - اجتماعی، افزایش معضلات سلامت جنسی
در نوجوانان و دیدگاه اثباتی مذهب طبقه بندی شد.
نتیجه گیری: بسیاری از نوجوانان و بزرگسالان بر ضرورت آموزش سلامت جنسی به دختران نوجوان اتفاق نظر داشتند.
بنابراین باید سیاستگذاران به جای اتلاف بیش از پیش زمان در دایره بسته تردید در ضرورت آموزش، در جهت طراحی و
تعیین ویژگی های آموزش جنسی مورد نیاز نوجوانان گام بردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Necessity of Sexual-Health Education for Iranian Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Robab Latif Nejad 1
  • Mozhgan Jvad Nouri 2
  • Marziyeh Hasanpour 3
  • Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazaveyi 4
  • Ali Taghipour 5
1 Assistant Professor of Midwifery, Patient Safety and Health Quality Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Lecturer of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Judishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Ph.D. student of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Pediatric, Nursing and Midwifery Cares Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
4 Professor of Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
5 Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Sexual-health education has faced challenges in most cultures. Iranian adolescents, particularly females, have many unmet needs in terms of sexual-health education; nonetheless, there are controversies about the necessity and appropriateness of sexual-health education for adolescents mainly due to the socio-cultural challenges in Iranian society. This qualitative study, therefore, aimed to explore perspectives and experiences of adolescents and key adults regarding the necessity of sexual health education to female adolescents in Iran.
Methods: The design was a qualitative content analysis, in which qualitative data were collected through careful interviews and group discussions with female adolescents, mothers, authorities of health and education organizations of the province, midwives of health centers, teachers and school counselors, and clergies in Ahvaz and Mashhad. Data were analyzed adopting conventional content analysis using MAXqda software.
Results: The main reasons for necessity of sexual-health education for female adolescents were categorized in five emerged themes including: lack of accurate sexual knowledge and attitudes, existence of inaccurate sources for sexual knowledge, socio-cultural changes, increased sexual health disorders in adolescents, and proved attitudes of religion.
Conclusion: Many adolescents and adults agreed on the necessity of sexual-health education. This reality would encourage policymakers to go forward to the next step, which is designing and implementing sexual-education programs according to the adolescents’ needs, instead of being in doubt about whether adolescents need to be provided for the sexual-health education or not.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Female adolescents
  • Qualitative content analysis
  • Qualitative research
  • Sex education
  • Sexual health
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