مرور کلی بر پاپیلوما ویروس ها به عنوان اصلی ترین عامل سرطان دهانه رحم

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه بیولوژی مولکولی، مرکز تحقیقات آزمایشگاه رفرانس، آزمایشگاه مرجع سلامت وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات آزمایشگاه رفرانس، آزمایشگاه مرجع سلامت وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار آزمایشگاه مرجع سلامت وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی، تهران، ایران.

4 استاد گروه ژنتیک پزشکی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: سرطان دهانه رحم مرتبط با پاپیلوما ویروس ها به عنوان شایع ترین سرطان زنان به صورت یک معضل بهداشتی در سراسر دنیا خصوصاً در کشورهای در حال توسعه مطرح می باشد. ژنوتیپ های مختلف پاپیلوما ویروس های انسانی خصوصاً ژنوتیپ های پرخطر به عنوان عامل اصلی این سرطان و دیگر سرطان های انسانی نظیر: دستگاه تناسلی، پوست، سر و گردن و غیره مطرح هستند. مطالعه حاضر با هدف افزایش آگاهی در مورد ساختار، بیماری زایی و تشخیص پاپیلوما ویروس ها انجام شد.
روش کار: مرور مستندات در مطالعه مروری حاضر با جستجو در پایگاه های علمی معتبر خارجی و داخلی و با استفاده از کلمات کلیدی مرتبط صورت گرفت. در این مطالعه سعی شده است با استفاده از مقالات منتشر شده در این پایگاه های علمی به بررسی نقش ژنوتیپ های مختلف پاپیلوما ویروس ها در ایجاد عفونت های مختلف از جمله سرطان دهانه رحم و روش های تشخیصی موجود در جهت ژنوتایپینگ این دسته از ویروس ها پرداخته شود.
یافته ها: افزایش دانش روز افزون درباره نقش مهم و اساسی پاپیلوما ویروس ها در سرطان زایی آنها منجر به بهبود روش های نوین تشخیصی مولکولی همراه با بیومارکرهای مولکولی در ژنوتایپینگ پاپیلوما ویروس ها خواهد شد.
نتیجه گیری: گسترش روز افزون عفونت های تناسلی، بیماری های مقاربتی و سرطان های ناشی از میکروارگانیسم ها به خصوص پاپیلوما ویروس، همکاری جوامع جهانی در انجام مطالعات جامع تر به خصوص در کشورهای در حال توسعه را می طلبد. آموزش همگانی، توسعه غربالگری کلاسیک همراه با روش های نوین تشخیصی، بهترین ابزار در تعیین خط مشی در استراتژی های درمانی و پیشگیری کننده چون واکسن بر علیه سرطان های مرتبط با پاپیلوما ویروس ها در کشورهای در حال توسعه خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Overview on Papillomaviruses as the Main Cause of Cervical Cancer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Sohrabi 1
  • Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami 2
  • Siamak Mirab Samiee 3
  • Mohammad Hossein Modarresi 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular Biology, Reference Laboratory Research Center, Reference Laboratory of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Reference Laboratory Research Center, Reference Laboratory of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Reference Laboratory of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
4 Professor, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Cervical cancer associated with Papillomaviruses has been suggested as the most common cancer and a big problem around the world, especially in developing countries. Different genotypes of Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) especially high risk genotypes are considered as the main cause of this cancer and other human cancers such as genital track, skin, head and neck and etc. This study was performed with aim to increase the awareness about the structure, pathogenesis and diagnosis of papillomaviruses.
Methods: In this review study, valid internal and external databases and the related keywords were used. In this study, it has been tried to use the published article in these scientific databases and evaluate the role of different Papillomaviruses genotypes in causing infections such as cervical cancer and diagnostic methods for genotyping of these viruses.
Results: Increasing knowledge about the important and basic role of Papillomaviruses in causing cancers will lead to improvement of novel molecular diagnostic methods along with molecular biomarkers in genotyping of Papillomaviruses.
Conclusion: Increasing rate of genital infections, sexually transmitted diseases and cancers caused by micro-organisms, especially HPV demands the cooperation of international communities to do more comprehensive studies, especially in developing countries. Public education, development of classic screening along with diagnostic novel methods will be the best tool to determine the policies in medical and preventive strategies such as vaccine against the cancers related to Papillomaviruses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Iran
  • Papillomavirus
  1. Sohrabi A, Mirab-Samiee S, Modarresi MH, Izadimood N, Azadmanesh K, Rahnamaye-Farzami M. Development of In-House Multiplex Real Time PCR for Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Iranian Women with Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15(15):6257-6261.
  2. Sohrabi A, Mirab-Samiee S, Rahnamaye-Farzami M, Rafizadeh M, Akhavan S, Hashemi-Bahremani M, et al. C13orf18 And C1orf166 (MULAN) DNA Genes Methylation Are Not Associated with Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes In Iranian Women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15(16):6745-6748.
  3. Keshe MM, Kaffashi A, Bagheri Gh, Shahkarami MK, Mohammadi M, Nadji SA. [Identification of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 among Thinprep Samples from 11 Provinces of Iran][Article in Persian]. IJOGI 2013; 16(72): 22-28.
  4. Shayanfar N, Hosseini N, Panahi M, Azadmanesh K, Mohammadpour M, Kadivar M, et al. Detection of Mucosal Type Human Papillomavirus in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Iran. Pathol Res Pract 2013; 209: 90-94.
  5. Shayanfar N, Babaheidarian P, Rahmani H, Azadmanesh K, Sohrabi A, Mohammadpour M, et al. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Associated with Plasmablastic Lymphoma and Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2012; 20(4):267-271.
  6. Teimori-Azadbakht AA, Soleimanjahi H, Fotouhi F. Isolation, Cloning and Expression of Human Papillomavirus 16 L1 Protein [Doctorate Thesis]. Iran. Medical Sciences School of Tarbiat Modarres University; 2008. (Persian).
  7. Miller DL, Puricelli MD, Stack MS. Virology and Molecular Pathogenesis of HPV (Human Papillomavirus)-Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Biochem J 2012; 443(2): 339-53.
  8. de Villiers EM. Cross-Roads in The Classification of Papillomaviruses. Virology 2013;445: 2-10.
  9. Doorbar J, Quint W, Banks L, Bravo IG, Stoler M, Broker TR, et al. The Biology and Life-Cycle Of Human Papillomaviruses. Vaccine 2012; 30S:55-70.
  10. Stanley MA. Epithelial Cell Responses to Infection with Human Papillomavirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 2012; 25(2): 215-22.
  11. Burd EM. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16(1): 1-17.
  12. Arbyn M, Dillner J. Review of current knowledge on HPV vaccination: an appendix to the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. J Clin Virol 2007; 38(3):189-97.
  13. Ustav M, Ustav E, Szymanski P, Stenlund A. Identification of The Origin of Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus and Characterization of The Viral Origin Recognition Factor E1. EMBO  J 1991; 10(13):4321-4329.
  14. Lowey DR, Howley PM, editors. Fields Virology. Vol 2, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2007.p. 2231-2264.
  15. Laird PW. Cancer Epigenetics. Hum Mol Genet 2005; 14(1):65-76.
  16. Leonard SM, Wei W, Collins SI, Pereira M, Diyaf A, Constandinou-Williams C, et al. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Imposes An Instructive Pattern of DNA Methylation Changes Which Parallel The Natural History of Cervical HPV Infection in Young Women. Carcinogenesis 2012; 33(7):1286-1293.
  17. Yang N, Eijsink JJH, Lendvai A, et al. Methylation Markers for CCNA1 and C13ORF18 Are Strongly Associated with High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer in Cervical Scrapings. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(11):3000-3007.
  18. Huisman C, Wisman GB, Kazemier HG, et al. Functional validation of putative tumor suppressor gene C13ORF18 in cervical cancer by Artificial Transcription Factors. Mol Oncol 2013; 7(3):669-679.
  19. Li W, Bengtson MH, Ulbrich A, et al. Genome-Wide and Functional Annotation of Human E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Identifies MULAN, a Mitochondrial E3 that Regulates the Organelle’s Dynamics and Signaling. PLoS One 2008; 23; 3(1):e1487.
  20. Chan PK, Picconi MA, Cheung TH, Giovannelli L, Park JS. Laboratory and Clinical Aspects of Human Papillomavirus Testing. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2012; 49(4):117-136.
  21. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global Cancer Statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61(2):69-90.
  22. de Freitas AC, Gurgel AP, Chagas BS, Coimbra EC, do Amaral CM. Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer; an Overview. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 126(2):304-311.
  23. Adams HP, Carnright EL. Infection and Cervical Cancer Prevention. Clinician Rev 2013; 23(9):42-50.
  24. Woodman CB, Collins SI, Young LS. The Natural History of Cervical HPV Infection: Unresolved Issues. Nat Rev Cancer 2007; 7(1):11-22.
  25. Vesco KK, Whitlock EP, Eder M, Lin J, Burda BU, Senger CA, et al. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US) 2011; Report No. : 11-05156-EF-1.
  26. Abreu AL, Souza RP, Gimenes F, Consolaro ME. A Review of Methods for Detect Human Papillomavirus Infection. Virol J 2012; 9:262.
  27. Human Papillomavirus Laboratory Manual 2009. Available at: http:// www.who.int/vaccines-documents. Accessed: November 2010.
  28.  Arney A, Bennett KM. Molecular Diagnostics of Human Papillomavirus. Lab Medicine 2010 41:523-530.
  29. Nishino HT, Tambouret RH, Wilbur DC. Testing for Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2011; 119(4):219-27.
  30. Torres M, Fraile L, Echevarria J, Hernandez Novoa B, Ortiz M. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping: Automation and Application in Routine Laboratory Testing. Open Virol J 2012;6:144-50.
  31. Benevolo M, Vocaturo A, Caraceni D, French D, Rosini S, Zappacosta R, et al. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49(7): 2643-2650.
  32. Chung HS, Hahm C, Lee M. Comparison of the clinical performances of The AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, The Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and The Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening. J Virol Methods 2014; 205C:57-60.
  33. Marcuccilli F, Farchi F, Mirandola W, Ciccozzi M, Paba P, Bonanno E, Perno CF, Ciotti M. Performance Evaluation Of Anyplex™II HPV28 Detection Kit in a Routine Diagnostic Setting: Comparison with The HPV Sign® Genotyping Test. J Virol Methods 2015; 217:8-13.
  34. Phillips S, Garland SM, Tan JH, Quinn MA, Tabrizi SN. Comparison of The Roche Cobas® 4800 HPV Assay to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array and Roche Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women Undergoing Treatment for Cervical Dysplasia. J Clin Virol 2015; 62:63-65.
  35. Schiller JT, Castellsague X, Garland SM. a Review of Clinical Trials of Human Papillomavirus Prophylactic Vaccines. Vaccine 2012;30S: 23-38.
  36. Jagu S, Karanam B, Gambhira R, Chivukula SV, Chaganti RJ, Lowy DR, et al. Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101(11):782-92.
  37. Cutts FT, Franceschi S, Goldie S, Castellsague X, de Sanjose S, Garnett G, et al. Human Papillomavirus and HPV Vvaccines: a Review. Bull World Health Organ 2007; 85(9):719-26.
  38. Deligeoroglou E, Giannouli A, Athanasopoulos N, Karountzos V, Vatopoulou A, Dimopoulos K, et al. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2013:540850.
  39. Bergot AS, Kassianos A, Frazer IH, Mittal D. New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers. Cancers (Basel) 2011; 3(3):3461-95.
  40. Li X, Wang X, Gu J, Ma Y, Liu Z, Shi Y. Needle-Free Injection of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Photodynamic Therapy for The Treatment of Condylomata Acuminate. Exp Ther Med 2013; 6(1):236-240.
  41. Laudadido, J. Human Papillomavirus Detection: Testing Methodologies and Their Clinical Utility in Cervical Cancer Screening. Adv Anat Pathol 2013; 20(3): 158-167.
  42. Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, Noone AM, Markowitz LE, Kohler B,et al. Annual Report to The Nation on The Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, Featuring The Burden and Trends in Human Papillomavirus(HPV)-Associated Cancers and HPV Vaccination Coverage Levels. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013;105(3):175-201.
  43. Wheeler CM, Hunt WC, Joste NE, Key CR, Quint WG, Castle PE. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distributions: Implications for Vaccination and Cancer Screening in The United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101(7):475-487.
  44. Arbyn M, Ronco G, Cuzick J, Wentzensen N, Castle PE. How to Evaluate Emerging Technologies in Cervical Cancer Screening?. Int J Cancer 2009; 125(11): 2489-2496.
  45. Nunobiki O, Ueda M, Toji E, Yamamoto M, Akashi K, Sato N, Izuma S, Torii K, Tanaka I, Okamoto Y, Noda S. Genetic Polymorphism of Cancer Susceptibility Genes and HPV Infection in Cervical Carcinogenesis. Pathol Res Int 2011; 1-8.
  46. Tornesello ML, Buonaguro L, Giorgi-Rossi P, Buonaguro FM. Viral and Cellular Biomarkers in The Diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cancer. Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013:519619.
  47. Hoste G, Vossaert K, Poppe WA. The Clinical Role of HPV Testing in Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Screening. Obstet Gynecol Int 2013; 2013: 610373.