تأثیر آموزش والدین بر آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد آنان در شیردهی انحصاری تا چهار ماهگی: یک کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی شده

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی البرز، کرج، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه آمار حیاتی، مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی البرز، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: تغذیه نوزاد با شیر مادر، یکی از اولویت‌های بهداشت عمومی و بهترین شروع در زندگی هر کودک است. با در نظر گرفتن اهمیت دانش و نگرش والدین در مورد مزایای شیر مادر، مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر آموزش پدران و مادران بر آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد آنان در شیردهی تا چهار ماهگی انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی شده در سال 1394 بر روی 76 پدر و مادر دارای نوزاد 3 تا 5 روزه مراجعه‌کننده به مرکز بهداشتی درمانی شهید راست‌روش وابسته به مرکز بهداشت کرج جهت دریافت خدمات بهداشتی انجام شد. افراد به روش تصادفی در دو گروه شاهد یا مداخله قرار گرفتند. پرسشنامه مشخصات فردی و مامایی، آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد توسط پدران و مادران تکمیل شد. مداخله آموزشی شامل دو جلسه 40 دقیقه‌ای به فاصله یک هفته، در زمان اولین مراجعه و یک هفته بعد از آن بود. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماریSPSS  (نسخه 21) و آزمون‌های تی مستقل، کای دو، من ویتنی و کوواریانس اندازه‌های تکراری انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: بین آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد مادران و پدران دو گروه مداخله و شاهد در سه زمان قبل از مداخله آموزشی، یک هفته بعد و 4 ماه بعد از مداخله تفاوت معناداری وجود داشت (001/0>p). بر اساس مقایسه میانگین‌ها، میانگین درصد نمره آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد مادران و پدران در گروه مداخله افزایش یافته بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: آموزش، تأثیر بسزایی در بهبود عملکرد، آگاهی و نگرش در میان پدران و مادران در مورد نحوه تغذیه کودک با شیر مادر دارد، لذا استفاده از برنامه‌های آموزشی به منظور یاددهی شیردهی به والدین می‌تواند در رشد و سلامت نوزاد تأثیر زیادی داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of parents' training on their knowledge, attitudes and performance in exclusive breastfeeding up to four months: A randomized clinical trial

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Panahi 1
  • Masoumeh Simbar 2
  • Razieh Lotfi 3
  • Mitra Rahimzadeh 4
1 M.Sc. student in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Research Center, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Breast-feeding is one of the priorities of public health and the best starting in the life of every child. Considering the importance of parents' knowledge and attitude about the benefits of breastfeeding, this study was performed with aim to examine the effect of parents' education on their knowledge, attitude and performance in breastfeeding up to four months.
Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 76 couples who had 3-5 days neonate and referred to Rastravesh Health Center in Karaj to receive health care services in 2015. The subjects were randomly placed in the control or intervention groups. Demographic and obstetrics, knowledge, attitude and performance questionnaire was completed by the parents. The educational intervention consisted of two 40-minute sessions with a week interval at first visit and one week later. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 21) and independent t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and covariance with repeated measures. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: There was significant difference between intervention and control groups in terms of knowledge, attitude and performance of mothers and fathers at three times, including before the intervention, a week later and four months after the intervention (P<0.001). Statistical comparison showed that the mean score of knowledge, attitudes and performance of mothers and fathers had increased in the intervention group.
Conclusion: Education has a significant effect on improving knowledge, attitudes and performance among parents on how to breastfeed the child; so using educational programs regarding correct breastfeeding practice can have an important effect on the growth and health of the neonate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attitude
  • Education
  • Exclusive breastfeeding
  • Knowledge
  • parents
  • Performance
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