ختنه دختران: الزام دینی یا اجبار فرهنگی؟

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای بهداشت باروری، دفتر تحقیقات و فن‌آوری دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات هورمون‌شناسی تولید مثل، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون ریز و متابولیسم دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 مربی گروه مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تویسرکان، تویسرکان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: آداب و رسوم اجتماعی ممکن است از دین منشأ گرفته و یا ریشه غیر مذهبی داشته باشند. یکی از رفتارهای اجتماعی که از گذشته‌های دور در میان برخی اقوام‌ رواج داشته، ختنه دختران است. برخی افراد واجب بودن دینی آن را بیان می‌کنند. برای پی بردن به صحت این ادعا، باید با دستورات ادیان آسمانی آشنا شد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی دیدگاه ادیان آسمانی اسلام، مسیحیت و یهودیت درباره ختنه دختران انجام شد.
روش‌کار: روش گردآوری داده‌ها در مقاله مروری حاضر، منابع کتابخانه‌ای، مجلات معتبر، سایت سازمان جهانی بهداشت و یونیسف و پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی علمی Science direct،PubMed ، Magiran Cochran library، Google Scholar، IranMedex و SID بود. برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از کلید واژه‌های ختنه دختران، ناقص‌سازی جنسی، بریدن آلت تناسلی دختران همراه با کلمات فقه، تشیع، تسنن، دین، مذهب، اسلام، مسیحی و یهودی استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به صورت کیفی انجام گردید.
یافته‌ها: از 68 مطالعه جستجو شده، 42 مطالعه مرتبط با هدف بررسی شد. هرچند امروزه ختنه دختران توسط مسلمانان، مسیحیان و یهودیان انجام می‌شود، اما در کتاب‌های قرآن، انجیل و یا تورات به انجام آن توصیه نشده است. هیچ‌کدام از این ادیان انجام ختنه برای دختران را واجب ندانسته‌اند. تنها پیروان مذهب شافعی ‌برداشتن پوست روی کلیتوریس را واجب می‌دانند.
نتیجه‌گیری: در جوامعی که ختنه دختران انجام می‌شود، رسم و سنت فرهنگی بر جنبه اعتقاداتی و دینی غلبه دارد. هر چند که طرفداران آن به منظور توجیه عمل خود، دستورات مذهبی را علت انجام آن می‌دانند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Female genital mutilation: religious coercion or cultural requirement?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboubeh Haji Foghaha 1
  • Masoumeh simbar 2
  • Samira Golezar 3
  • Shiva Alizadeh 1
1 PhD Student in Reproductive Health, students Research and Technology Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Reproductive Hormone Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Instructor, Deprtment of Midwifery, Islamic Azad University, Tuyserkan Branch, Tuyserkan Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Social tradition may originate from religion or nonreligious root. From long ago, there was female genital mutilation as a social behavior among some ethnic groups. Some people believe that female genital mutilation is a religious obligatory. To understand the accuracy of this assertion, people must know the commands and doctrines divine religions. This study was performed with aim to investigates the views of the heavenly religions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism about female genital mutilation.
Methods: Collecting data in this review article was library resources, scientific journals, WHO and UNICEF, databases of Sciencedirect, PubMed, Magiran, Cochran library, Google Scholar, IranMedex and SID. Time interval for searching references was 2002 to 2016. Information were collected by using the keywords of Female Genital Mutilation, Female Genital Circumcision and Female Genital Cutting along with the keywords of doctrine, Sunni, Shia, Jewish, Christian, Islam and Religion. Data were analyzed qualitatively
Results: From 68 searched articles, 28 articles which met inclusion criteria and were related to the purpose of the study were reviewed. The results showed that although nowadays female genital mutilation is performing by Muslims, Christians and Jews, but Koran, Bible or Torah has not recommended it and don't know it as a mutilation obligatory for girls. Only, Shafei know it necessary to remove the skin of clitoris.
Conclusion: In societies where female genital mutilation is done, cultural tradition is dominant on religious convictions; although the advocates for justifying their actions claim that the reason is religious orders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Christianity
  • Female genital circumcision
  • Female genital mutilation
  • Islam
  • Judaism
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