مقایسه رایحه اسانس میخک و نعناع فلفلی بر شدت درد و اضطراب مرحله اول زایمان

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دفتر تحقیقات و فناوری دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکترای آمار زیستی، دانشکده پیراپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

4 استاد گروه فارماکوگنوزی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم دارویی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

5 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی البرز، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: امروزه استفاده از روش‌های غیر دارویی و طب مکمل به منظور کاهش درد و اضطراب زایمان رو به افزایش است، لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف مقایسه رایحه اسانس میخک و نعناع فلفلی بر شدت درد و اضطراب مرحله اول زایمان انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این کارآزمایی بالینی در سال 1393 بر روی 126 نفر از زنان نخست‌زای مراجعه کننده به بیمارستان کمالی کرج به تفکیک در دو گروه میخک (63 نفر) و نعناع فلفلی (63 نفر) انجام گردید. رایحه درمانی از دیلاتاسیون 4-3 سانتی‌متر آغاز شد. در گروه اول 2/0 میلی‌لیتر اسانس نعناع فلفلی و در گروه دوم 2/0 میلی‌لیتر اسانس میخک به گاز آغشته و به یقه لباس نمونه‌ها متصل شد و هر نیم ساعت تجویز اسانس مربوطه تکرار شد. شدت درد در دیلاتاسیون‌های 4-3، 7-5 و 10-8 سانتی متر و شدت اضطراب در دیلاتاسیون‌های 4-3 و 10-8 سانتی‌متر اندازه‌گیری شد. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها شامل پرسشنامه فردی و مامایی، اضطراب اسپیل برگر، چک لیست مشاهده معاینه و خط‌کش درد مک‌گیل بود. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 18) و آزمون‌های تی مستقل، کای دو و من ویتنی انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: بعد از مداخله در گروه میخک در مقایسه با نعناع فلفلی در دو متغیر شدت درد و میزان اضطراب، تفاوت آماری معنی‌داری مشاهده شد (001/0>p). لازم به ذکر است که در هر دو گروه شدت درد در دیلاتاسیون‌های 4-3، 7-5 و 10-8 کاهش یافت، ولی میزان کاهش شدت درد در گروه رایحه درمانی با میخک نسبت به اسانس نعناع فلفلی بیشتر بود. همچنین میزان اضطراب آشکار نیز در دیلاتاسیون‌های 4-3 و 10-8 در هر دو گروه کاهش یافت، ولی میزان کاهش اضطراب در گروه رایحه درمانی با میخک نسبت به اسانس نعناع فلفلی بیشتر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: رایحه درمانی با اسانس میخک در مقایسه با نعناع فلفلی به میزان بیشتری باعث کاهش درد و سطح اضطراب هنگام زایمان می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Peppermint and Clove essential oil aroma on pain intensity and anxiety at first stage of labor

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gity Ozgoli 1
  • Shokofeh Torkashvand 2
  • Fatemeh Salehi Moghaddam 2
  • Nasrin Borumandnia 3
  • Faraz Mojab 4
  • Sonia Minooee 5
1 Assistant professor, Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 MSc. in Midwifery, Students Research and Technology Office, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD Student of Biostatistics, Paramedical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4 Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5 MSc. in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Nowadays, use of non-pharmacological methods and complementary medicine to reduce pain intensity and anxiety during labor is increasing. Therefore, this study was performed with aim to compare the effects of Peppermint and Clove essential oil aroma on pain intensity and anxiety at first stage of labor.
Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on 126 nulliparous women referred to Kamali hospital in Karaj, respectively divided into two groups of Peppermint and Clove (63 in each group) in 2014. Aromatherapy started from 3-4cm of cervix dilatation. In first group, 0.2 ml of essential oil of Peppermint and in second group, 0.2 ml of essential oil of Clove was stained to gas and attached to dresses collar of women and aromatherapy was repeated every half hour. Intensity of labor pain was measured in 3,4cm, 5,7cm and 8,10cm of cervix dilatation and anxiety was measured in 3,4cm and 8,10cm of cervix dilatation. The data were collected through demographic-obstetric questionnaire, observation-examination checklist, Spielberger anxiety questionnaire and McGill Pain Ruler. The data were analyzed by statistical software (version 18), independent t-test, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney. PResults: After the intervention, there was a significant statistical difference between two groups of Peppermint and Clove in pain intensity and anxiety (P<0.001). It should be mentioned that in both groups, pain intensity decreased in cervical dilatations of 3,4cm, 5,7cm and 8,10cm; but pain reduction in Clove aromatherapy group was more than Peppermint group. Also, obvious anxiety decreased in both groups in 3,4cm and 8,10cm cervical dilatations, but anxiety reduction in Clove aromatherapy group was more Peppermint group. 
Conclusion: Aromatherapy with essential oils of Clove compared to Peppermint leads to more reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anxiety
  • Aromatherapy
  • Clove
  • First stage of labor
  • Labor pain
  • Peppermint
  1. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL. Williams obstetrics. 22th ed. New York: MCGraw Hill; 2005. P. 490.
  2. Kim HH, Nava-Ocampo AA, Kim SK, Kim SH, Kim YJ, Han JY. Is prenatal childbirth preparation effective in decreasing adverse maternal and neonatal response to labor? A nested case-control study. Acta Biomed 2008; 79(1):18-22.
  3. Kimber L, McNabb M, McCourt C, Haines A, Brocklehurst P. Massage or music for pain relief in labour: a pilot randomised placebo controled trial. Eur J Pain 2008; 12(8):961-9.
  4. Trout KK. The neuromatrix theory of pain: the implications for selected nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief for labor. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004; 49(6):482-8.
  5. Simkin PT, Bolding PT. Update on nonpharmacologic approaches to relieve labor pain and prevent suffering. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004; 49(6):489-504.
  6. Abushaikha L, Oweis A. Labor pain experience and intensity: a Jordanian perspective. Int J Nurs Pract 2005; 11(1):33-8.
  7. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. P. 135-9.
  8. Henderson C, MacDonald S. Mayes midwifery: a textbook for midwives.13th ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Limited; 2004. P. 418-58.
  9. Murry JH. Intergrative reflexology: a therapy within a naturopathic nursing practice. Explore (NY) 2005; 1(5):400-1.
  10. May KA, Mahlmeister LR. Comprehensive maternity nursing: nursing process and the childbearing family. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1999.
  11. Foroud A, Foroud A, Mehdipour S. The effects of breathing patterns and massage on the pain and perception of labor in primiparous women. Shahrekord Univ Med Sci J 2006; 7(4):70–7. (Persian).
  12. Moradan S. Evaluation of selection of route of delivery and its causes in patients referring to medical centers of semnan from April until September 2004. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2004; 2(2):44-9. (Persian).
  13. Seyed Noori T, Jamshidi Avanaki F. Survey the relationship between knowledge and attitude of pregnant women requesting cesarean section referred to Rasht health centers and their choice reasons. J Guilan Univ Med Sci 2006; 15(59):75-84. (Persian).
  14. Fardi-Azar Z, Jafari-Shabiri MA. Survey for determining factors on women’s attitudes toward vaginal and cesarean delivery medical. J Tabriz Univ Med Sci 2003; 59:66-9. (Persian).
  15. Mccrea H, Wright ME. Satisfaction in childbirth and perceptions of personal control in pain relief during labor. J Adv Nurs 1999; 29(4):877-84.
  16. Ip WY. Relationships between partner’s support during labour and maternal outcomes. J Clin Nurs 2000; 9(2):265-72.
  17. Change MY, Wang SY, Chen CH. Effects of massage on pain and anxiety during labour: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan. J Adv Nurs 2002; 38(1):68-73.
  18. Chunge W, Ip WY, Chan D. Maternal anxiety and feeling of control during labour: a study of first time pregnant women. Midwifery 2007; 23(2):123-30.
  19. Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. J Midwifery Womens Health 2006; 51(2):e21-7.
  20. Ahmadi Z. Evaluation of the effect of continuous midwifery support on pain intensity in labor and delivery. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci 2011; 9(4):293-304. (Persian).
  21. Ranjbar A. Education of convenient, painless labor and post-partum care. Tehran: Saee Dloo Publication; 2002. (Persian).
  22. Simkin P, Bolding A. Update on nonpharmacologic approaches to relieve labor pain and prevent suffering. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004; 49(6):489-504.
  23. Steflitsch W, Steflitsch M. Clinical aromatherapy. J Mens Health 2008; 5(1):74-85.
  24. Vakilian K, Karamat A, Mousavi A, Shariati M, Ajami M, Atarha M. The effect of lavender essence via inhalation method on labor pain. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2012; 14(1):34-40. (Persian).
  25. Burns E, Zobbi V, Panzeri D, Oskrochi R, Regalia A. Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomized controlled trial. BJOG 2007; 114(7):838-44.
  26. Joseph RM, Fernandes P. Effectiveness of Jasmine oil massage on reduction of labor pain among primigravida mothers. Nitte Univ J Health Sci 2013; 3(4):104-7.
  27. Nourbakhsh S, Taavoni S. P-910-effect of aromatherapy on labor pain: a randomized control trial study in bandarabbas, year 2010. Eur Psych 2012; 27(1):1.
  28. Ozgoli G, Aryamanesh Z, Mojab F, Alavi Majd H. Study of inhalation of peppermint aroma on the pain and anxiety of the first stage of labor in nulliparous women: a randomized clinical trial. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2013; 7(3):21-7. (Persian).
  29. Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med 2008; 16(3):131-8.
  30. Audet D, Bouchard S, Cusson JC, Katzman M. Anxiety disorders in pregnant and postpartum mothers. New York: National Academy of Sciences; 2010.
  31. Brown B. Mint soil fertility research in the PNW. Salt Lake: Western Nutrient Management Cont; 2003. P. 54-60.
  32. Fluck H. Medicinal Plants. Tavakoli M, Sedaghat M, Translator. Tehran: Rozbahan; 1998. p. 50-150. (Persian)
  33. Gendey JJ, Glove TL, Fillingim RB. Sensory and affective pain discrimination after inhalation of essential oils. Psychosom Med 2004; 66(4):559-606.
  34. Mojarrad SJ, Davaran S, Ghasemi S, Anzali S. A novel method for preparation and purification of eugenol and isoeugenol polymers using protected monomers in Cationic polymerization. Pharmaceit Sci 2009; 14(4):275-82. (Persian).
  35. Firouzi R, Rajaeian H, Khak Pour AR. In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol. Jundishapur Sci Med J 2007; 6(3):290-3. (Persian).
  36. Mirzaee F, Kaviani M, Keshtgar S, Rajaiefard A. The effect of lavender essence smelling during labor on cortisol and serotonin plasma levels and anxiety reduction in nulliparous women. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2009; 16(3):245-54. (Persian).
  37. McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk D. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th ed. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2006.
  38. Good M, Stiller C, Zauszniewski JA, Anderson GC, Stanton-Hicks M, Grass JA. Seneation and distress of pain scales: reliability validity and sensitivity. J Nurs Meas 2001; 9(3):219-38.
  39. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L. The use of aromatherapy in intra partum midwifery practices an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2000; 6(1):33-4.
  40. Fazel N. The effect of supermint oil on pain severity after cesarean section. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2005; 7(1):28-32. (Persian).
  41. Alavi N, Nematie M, Kaviani M, Tabaie MH. The effect of lavender aromatherapy on the pain intensity perception and intarapartum outcomes in primipare. Armaghan Danesh 2005; 15(1):30-7. (Persian).
  42. Seraji A, Vakilian K. The comparison between the effects of aromatherapy with lavender and reathing techniques on the reduction of labor pain. Complement Med J Facul Nurs Midwifery 2011; 1(1):34-41. (Persian).
  43. Park MK, Lee ES. The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004; 34(2):344-51.
  44. Mirzaei F, Keshtgar S, Kaviani M, Rajaiefard A. The effect of lavender essence smelling during labor on cortisol and serotonin plasma levels and anxiety reduction in nulliparous women. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2009; 16(3):245-54. (Persian).
  45. McKinney ES, Murray SS, James SR, Nelson K. Maternal-child nursing. 2nd ed. St Louis: Saunders; 2005.
  46. Bastard J, Tiran D. Aromatherapy and massage for antenatal anxiety: its effect on the fetus. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006; 12(1):48-54.
  47. Pollard KR. Introducing aromatherapy as a form of pain management into a delivery suite. J Assoc Chart Physiother Womens Health 2008; 103(3):12-6.
  48. Fazel M, Omidbeygi M, Barzegar M, Naghdi Badi H. Influence of heating on antiradical activity of essential oils of thyme, summer savory and clove by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. J Med Plants 2007; 2(22):54-63.
  49. Hoodgar F, Nasri S, Amin G. Investigation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Hydro-alcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca L. Horizon Med Sci 2011; 17(1):12-9.