سلامت روان و عوامل مرتبط با آن در زنان جوان شهر کاشان

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار روانپزشکی وفوق تخصص روانپزشکی کودک ونوجوان،دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علومپزشکی کاشان

چکیده

مقدمه: زنان یکی از گروههای حساس بهداشتی بوده که نسبت به مردان در خطر بالاتری برای اکثر اختلالات روانی
هستند. سلامت روان زنان، سلامت خانواده و متعاقباً جامعه را تضمین می کند. این مطالعه جهت بررسی وضعیت
سلامت روان زنان جوان در شهر کاشان و عوامل مرتبط با آن در سال 1384 طراحی و اجرا شده است.
روش کار: در این مطالعه مقطعی توصیفی تحلیلی 400 زن جوان 20-40 ساله به روش خوشه ای از سطح شهر
کاشان انتخاب شدند. ابزار مورد استفاده جهت بررسی سلامت روان، پرسشنامه سلامت عمومی 28 سوالی بود.
همچنین یک پرسشنامه جمعیت شناختی (مشخصات فردی، خانوادگی) شامل متغیرهای سن، وضعیت تاهل، وضعیت
شغلی، سن ازدواج، تفاوت سنی با همسر، سن اولین بارداری و تعداد فرزندان برای زنان نمونه تکمیل گردید.
اطلاعات جمع آوری شده توسط نرم افزار SPSS نسخه11 و با استفاده از آزمون مجذور کای مورد تحلیل قرار
گرفت.
نتایج: یافته ها نشان داد که 40 درصد زنان مورد مطالعه در شهر کاشان مشکوک به اختلال روانی (عدم سلامت
روان) بر اساس پرسشنامه سلامت عمومی می باشند. زنان مشکوک به اختلال روانی، در دو زیر مقیاس اضطراب
(9/23) و علائم جسمانی (8/68) میانگین نمرات بالاتری داشتند. سلامت روانی زنان مورد مطالعه ارتباط معناداری با
سن، تعداد فرزندان، سابقه بیماری اعصاب و روان، سابقه بیماری جسمی، تحصیلات و وضعیت اقتصادی داشت
(p<0/05). سلامت روان زنان با وضعیت شغلی، تا هل، سن ازدواج، رابطه معناداری نداشت (p>0/05).
نتیجه گیری: با توجه به نتایج فوق و درصد بالای زنان جوان مشکوک به اختلال روانی در شهر کاشان لزوم
مطالعات دقیق تر و وسیع تر سلامت روان زنان جوان و عوامل مرتبط با آن در سایر نقاط ایران پیشنهاد می شود تا
با تشخیص عوامل دخیل در سلامت روان زنان، به پیشگیری و درمان به موقع این اختلالات پرداخته شود. و با
بهبود سلامت روان زنان جوان، سلامت روان کودکان را فراهم کنیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mental Health and Its Related Factors in Young Women in Kashan City

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Sepehrmanesh
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Women are more susceptible to mental disorders than men. Promoting women's mental health leads to promote the mental health of the family and the community. This study was designed to evaluate the mental health and its related factors of the young women living in Kashan city.
 
Methods and Material: Four hundred women aged 20-40 years were participated in this cross sectional study. The participants were selected through cluster sampling from different regions of Kashan city (center of Iran). Informed consents were obtained from all the participants. Their mental health was evaluated by using General Health Questionnaire (28-item). We also used a comprehensive demographic questionnaire to evaluate the related factors, which included some questions regarding the: age, age at the time of marriage, marital status, age at the time of the first delivery, number of children, age discrepancy with the husbands, and history of mental disorders and physical diseases. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11and Descriptive statistical tests and Chi square test.
 
Results: Forty percent of the participants had psychopathology on the basis of the scores they obtained after answering the General Health Questionnaire. The women had more mean scores in two subscales; anxiety (9/23), and somatic symptoms (8/68). Mental health of women had significant relationship with age, number of children, age discrepancy with their husbands, socioeconomic status,education level and history of mental disorders and physical diseases (P<0/05) Women's mental health had not significant relationship with marital status, age at the time of marriage, and employment (P>0.05)
 
Conclusion: Mental disorder is prevalent in women in Kashan city. Multicenter studies are proposed to assess women's mental health in other parts of Iran in order to find the prevalence, the contributing factors, and treat the affected individuals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mental health
  • Women
  • Iran
1. Kornstein SG, Clayton AH. Women's mental health: a comprehensive textbook.New
York:Guilford Press;2002.
2. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz M, Blazer DG, Nelson CB. Sex and depression in the
National Comorbidity Survey. L: Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. J Affect
Disord 1993 Oct-Nov;29(2-3):85-96.
3. Cyranowski JM, Frank E, Young E, Shear MK. Adolescent onset of the gender difference
in lifetime rates of major depression: a theoretical model. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000
Jan;57(1):21-7.
4. Bijl RV, Ravelli A, van Zessen G. Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the general
population: results of The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study
(NEMESIS). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1998 Dec;33(12):587-95.
5. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, et al. Lifetime
and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results
from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994 Jan;51(1):8-19.
6. 6. Lindal E, Stephenson JG. The lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in lceland as
estimated by US National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Acta
Psychiatr Scand 1993 Jul;88(1):29-34.
7. rasucki C, Howard R, Mann A. The relationship between anxiety disorders and age. Int J
Geriatr Psychiatry 1998 Feb;13(2):79-99. 
 
8. Escobar JI, Rubio-Stipec M, Canino G, Karno M. Somatic symptom index (SSl): a new and
abridged somatization construct. Prevalence and epidemiological correlates in two large
community samples. J Nerv Ment Dis 1989 Mar;177(3):140-6.
9. Salari H, Basiri Moghaddam K. Survey of young and middle adult women mental health in
urban population of Gonabad. Ofogheh Danesh J 2003 Summer;16:104-10.
10. Shariati M, Yunesian M, Vash JN. Mental health of medical students: a cross-sectional
study in Tehran. Pychol Rep 2007 Apr;100(2):346-54.
11. Troxel WM, Mattews KA, Gallo LC, Kuller LH. Marital quality and occurrence of the
metabolic syndrome in women.Arch Intern Med 2005 May 9;165(9):1022-27.
12. Van Bussel JC, Spitz B, Demyttenaere K. Woman's mental health before, during, and after
pregnancy: a population–based controlled cohert study. Birth 2006 Dec;33(4):297-302.
13. Goldberg DP, Williams P. The user guide to general health questionnaire. Windsor:Nelson
1989.
14. Williams P, Wilkinson G, Rawnsly K. The scope of epidemiological psychiatry.
London;1989.
15. Palahang H, Nasr M, Barahani T, Shahmohammadi D.[Epidemiological survey of mental
disorders in Kashan city] [Article in Farsi]. Andeesheh va Raftar J 1995 Winter;2(4):19-27.
16. Golderg DP, Gater R, Sartorius N. Ustun TB, Piccinelli M, Gureie O, et al. The validity of
two version of GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol
Med 1997 Jan;27(1):191-7.
17. Omidi A, Tabatabai A, Sazvar A, Akkasheh G. [Epidemiology of mental disorders in urban
areas of Natanz province,Isfahan] [Article in Farsi]. Andeesheh va Raftar J 2003
Spring;8(47):32-8.
18. Davidian H, Ezadi S, Nahaptian V, Motabar M. [Preliminary survey about prevalence of
mental disorders in Bahre Khazar area, province of Rodsar] [Article in Farsi]. Behdashte
Iran J 1974;3(4):56-145.
19. Ghubash R, Hamidi E, Bebbington P. The Dubai community psychiatric survey: prevalence
and socio-demographic correlates. Social Psychiat Epidemiol 1992;27:53-61.
20. Cheng TA. A community study of minor psychiatric morbidity in Taiwan. Psychol Med
1998 Nov;18(4):953-68.
21. Lethinen V. Prevalence of mental disorders among adult in Finland: basic result from the
mini finland health survey. Acta psychiatr Scand 1990;81:418-28.
22. Hodiamont P, Peer N, Syben N. Epidemiological aspects of psychiatric disorder in a Dutch
health area. Psychol Med 1987 May;17(2):495-505.
23. Romans-Clarkson SE, Walton VA, Herbison CP, Mullen PE. Psychiatric morbidity among
women in urban and rural New Zealand: psycho-social correlates. Br J Psychiatry 1990 Jan;
156:84-91.
24. Bagheri Yazdi SA, Bolhari J, Shahmohammadi D. [Epidemiological survey of mental
disorders in rural areas of Maybod]. Andeesheh va Raftar J 1994;1:32-41.
25. Mohammadi M, Bagheri Yazdi SA, Rahgozar M, Mesgarpoor B, Rezayi Ansari AA,
Haghdadi GH, et al. Epidemiological study of Psychiatric Disorders in Khorasan Province
in 2001[Article in Farsi]. Asrar J 2004 Spring;11(1):6-17.
26. Yaghobi N, Nasr M, Shahmohammadi D.[ Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in rural
areas of Someah Sara,Guilan] [Article in Farsi]. Andeesheh va Raftar J 1995;2(4):55-65.
27. Rohrer JE, Bernard ME, Zhang Y, Rasmussen NH, Woroncow N. Marital status, feeling
depressed and self-rated health in rural female primary care patients. J Eval Clin Pract 2008
Apr;14(2):214-7.
28. Cochrane R, Stopes-Roe M. Women, marriage, employment and mental health. Br J
Psychiatry 1981 Nov;139:373-81. 
 
29. Shams Alizadeh N, Bolhari J, Shahmohammadi D. Epidemiology of mental disorders in a
village in Tehran Province[Article in Farsi]. Andeesheh Va Raftar J 2001 SummerFall;7(1-2):19-26.
 
30. Wang JL, Lesage A, Schmitz N, Drapeau A. The relationship between work stress and
mental disorders in men and women: finading from population-based study. J Epidemiol
community Health 2008 Jan;62(1):42-7.
31. Fleischer NL, Fernald LC, Hubbard AE. Depressive symptoms in rural Mexico.
Epidemiology 2007 Nov; 18(6): 678-85.