بررسی میزان و علل مشارکت یا عدم مشارکت زنان مراجعه کننده به درمانگاه های شهر کرمان در برنامه های غربالگری سرطان های دهانه رحم و پستان

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مربی دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: سرطان های پستان و دهانه ی رحم شیوع و مرگ و میر بالایی در بین زنان دارند. روش های غربالگری، بهترین روش های تشخیص زودرس سرطان های زنان هستند که انجام آن ها به طور چشم گیری از میزان مرگ و میر آنان می کاهد. لذا این مطالعه به منظور تعیین میزان و علل مشارکت و عدم مشارکت زنان مراجعه کننده به درمانگاه های شهر کرمان در برنامه های غربالگری سرطان های پستان و دهانه ی رحم درسال 1386 انجام گرفت.
روش کار: این پژوهش، مطالعه ای توصیفی است که بر روی 200 زن متأهل که جهت کنترل بارداری، مراقبت بعد از زایمان، مشاوره ی تنظیم خانواده، بیماری های زنان ویا واکسیناسیون کودکانشان به پنج درمانگاه شهر کرمان مراجعه کرده بودند، انجام شد. روش نمونه گیری، خوشه ای و ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات، پرسش نامه بود که پس از تعیین روایی و پایائی (ضریب پایایی92/0) توسط مصاحبه تکمیل گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با نرم افزار SPSS (نسخه 14) و آزمون های آماری مجذور کای و ANOVA انجام شد.
یافته ها: 5/22% زنان مورد مطالعه، در برنامه خودآزمایی پستان،5/21% در معاینه بالینی پستان و27% در پاپ اسمیر مشارکت داشتند. بیش ترین علل مشارکت در برنامه های غربالگری سرطان پستان آگاهی از اهمیت آ ن و در برنامه غربالگری سرطان دهانه رحم، تشخیص زود هنگام سرطان بود. هم چنین بیش ترین علت عدم مشارکت زنان (در برنامه های غربالگری سزطان های پستان و سرویکس) عدم توصیه پزشک بود. مشارکت زنان در برنامه خود آزمایی پستان با سطح تحصیلات و شغل (001 /0>p)، معاینه ی بالینی پستان با سطح تحصیلات و شغل (001/0>p) و وضعیت اقتصادی (04/0=p) وجود داشت. هم چنین بین انجام نیز پاپ اسمیر با شغل (001/0>p)، سن (014/0=p) و سطح تحصیلات (016/0=p) نیز رابطه ی آماری معنی دار بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: مشارکت زنان مورد مطالعه در برنامه های غربالگری چندان مطلوب نمی باشد. بیش ترین علل عدم مشارکت، عدم توصیه پزشک و عدم آگاهی بود، لذا تدوین برنامه های آموزشی توسط مراکز بهداشتی جهت آشنایی زنان با این برنامه ها، و نیز توصیه پزشکان، ماماها و کارکنان بهداشتی به شرکت آنان در این برنامه ها ضروری به نظر می رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Survey on the Rate and Causes of Women’s Participation or Nonparticipation in Breast and Cervical Cancers Screening Programs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zhila Soltanahmadi
  • Abbas Abbaszadeh
  • Batool Tirgari
Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Breast and cervical cancers have high prevalence and mortality among women. The screening tests are the best diagnostic methods that significantly decrease their mortality. This study was performed to determine the rate and causes of women’s participation or nonparticipation in screening programs of breast and cervical cancers among the women referred to clinics over Kerman city in 2007.
 
Methods: This study is a descriptive research on 200 married women who referred to five distinct clinics in Kerman for their prenatal and postnatal care, family planning, baby vaccination and gynecologic visits. After a cluster sampling, data gathering was performed through a questionnaire with the reliability of 0.92. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS software (version 14) and ANOVA and chi-square tests.
 
Results: According to the results, 22.5% of women were participated in breast self examination, 21.5% in clinical breast examination and 27% in Pap smear test. The most common cause for participating in breast-cancer screening was awareness of its importance and in cervical- cancer screening was early diagnosis of cancer. Also the most common cause for nonparticipation (in both breast and cervical-cancers screening programs) was none physicians’ recommendation. There was a significant relation between women’s participation in BSE with educational level and occupation (P<0.001), and between women’s participation in CBE and educational level, occupation (P<0.001) and economic level (P=0.04). Also there was a same scenario between participation in pap smear test and occupation (P<0.001), age (P=0/014), and educational level (P=0/016).
 
Conclusion: Women’s participation in breast and cervical-cancers screening programs was not satisfactory. The most common causes for nonparticipation in these programs were both none physician recommendation and awareness. The study suggests the necessity of compiling the educational programs by health centers which aims to introducing women with these programs. It also seems that recommendation of physicians, midwives and health care providers is necessary in increasing the women’s participation in these programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Screening
  • Participation
  • Pap smear
  • Breast Self-Examination
  • Clinical breast examination
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