مقایسه خشونت­های خانگی قبل و طی بارداری و عوامل مرتبط با آن

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات سلامت زنان، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: با توجه به عوارض خشونت در بارداری، نامشخص بودن نقش بارداری در ایجاد آن و تفاوت عوامل زمینه‌ای موثر بر خشونت در جوامع مختلف، مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین فراوانی انواع خشونت و عوامل مرتبط با آن در بارداری و مقایسه آن با قبل از بارداری انجام شد.
 
روش‌کار: در این مطالعه توصیفی تحلیلی، 190 زن باردار ایرانی مراجعه کننده به مراکز بهداشتی درمانی و زایشگاه‌های بیمارستان‌های شهر مشهد در سال 84-1383 به‌روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و وارد مطالعه شدند. پرسشنامه بررسی خشونت قبل و حین بارداری بر اساس مطالعه کیفی تجربه خشونت خانگی با استفاده از مصاحبه عمیق با 25 زن باردار تهیه و داده‌های کمی با روش مصاحبه گردآوری شد. داده‌ها با روش‌های آماری توصیفی، آزمون کای دو، تی دانشجویی و من ویتنی با ‌نرم‌افزار SPSS (نسخه 13) تحلیل شد.
 
یافته‌ها: میزان کلی انواع خشونت قبل از بارداری 9/82% و در بارداری 1/64% بود. شایع‌ترین نوع خشونت در دوران بارداری خشونت جنسی (6/51%) و قبل از بارداری خشونت روانی (6/67%) بود. انواع خشونت در بارداری با ناخواسته بودن بارداری و ویژگی‌های جمعیت‌شناختی رابطه‌ای نداشت، ولی با سابقه خشونت در خانواده همسر (012/0=p)، ازدواج بدون رضایت زن (004/0=p)، چند همسری بودن مرد (006/0=p)، اعتیاد (000/0=p) و سابقه محکومیت کیفری همسر (000/0=p) رابطه معنی‌دار داشت.
 
نتیجه‌گیری: انواع خشونت علیه زنان در بارداری و قبل از آن از شیوع بالایی برخوردار است. بنابراین آموزش ماماها در زمینه ارزیابی زنان باردار از نظر خشونت خانگی و عوامل خطر مربوط به آن و ارجاع زنان تحت خشونت جهت مشاوره پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of domestic violence during pregnancy with the Pre-pregnancy period and its relating factors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Talat Khadivzadeh 1
  • Fatemeh Erfanian 2
1 PhD in Reproductive Health Specialist, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Women's Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 M.Sc. of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Considering the importance of domestic violence and lack of information about the role of pregnancy in its occurrence and variations in its relating factors among societies, this study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency of all types of violence before and during pregnancy and explore its relating factors.
 
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 190 Iranian pregnant women referring to the health centers and labor hospitals of Mashhad in 2004-2005 were selected by sampling method and entered the study. The questionnaire of evaluating violence before and during pregnancy was prepared by deep interviews with 25 pregnant women based on the qualitative study of violence experience and quantitative data were collected by interviews. Data was analyzed by McNemar and Chi-square test, student t-test and -Mann-Whitney test using SPSS 13 software.
 
Results:The overall rate of different types of violence was respectively 82.9% and 64.1% before and during pregnancy. The most common type of violence was sexual (51.6%) during pregnancy and psychological (67.6%) before pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy didn’t have any relationship with unwanted pregnancy and demographic characteristics, but showed significant relationship with history of violence in the husband’s family (p=.012), marriage without the woman’s consent (p=.004), polygamy (p=.006), history of husband’s penal conviction
(p=.000) and addiction (p=.000).
 
conclusion: Violence against women is among the most common problems during pregnancy and before it and is important threats to the health of both mother and child and family. Training midwives about the methods of client assessment on domestic violence and its related factors, along with counseling and referring the victims of violence are suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Domestic violence
  • Violence Against Women
  • pregnancy
  • Socioeconomic factors
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