بررسی حکم سقط جنین از دیدگاه فقه مذاهب اسلامی

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه فقه و حقوق اسلامی،دانشکده علوم و تحقیقات اسلامی،دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)قزوین،ایران

2 استاد گروه زنان،مرکز تحقیقات سلامت زنان،دانشکده پزشکی،دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد،ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد فقه و مبانی حقوق اسلامی،دانشکده علوم و تحقیقات اسلامی،دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره) قزوین،ایران

چکیده

 
یکی از مسائلی که فراروی اخلاق و پزشکی است،مسئله سقط جنین می باشد.با توجه به اینکه جنین از زمان پیدایش تا تکامل نهایی خود دو مرحله را طی میکند که در مرحله اول فاقد روح استو در مرحله دوم دارای روح می شود،گروهی از فقها با استناد به دلایلی معتقدند سقط نمودن جنینی که دارای روح است از نظر اخلاقی به هیچ وجه جایز نیست.اما از نظر عقلی و از دیدگاه علم پزشکی،سقط کردن جنینی که تولدش منجر به مرگ مادر و پدید آمدن عوارض شدید جسمانی برای او شود به طوری که ادامه زندگی سخت و مشکل شود و همچنین جنینی که به انواع و اقسام ناهنجاری ها مبتلا است و اگر به دنیا بیاید فقط زندگی حیوانی خواهد داشت و فاقد هر گونه شعور و ادراک خواهد بود و صرف هزینه های گزاف برای او نیز بی فایده باشد،جایز است.در کشاکش بین اخلاق و ضرر و زیانهای حاصله متعدد،تکلیف چیست؟آیا سقط جنین در هر شرایطی خلاف اخلاق است و مشمول حکم حرمت است؟اصولا چه نوع سقطی خلاف اخلاق است؟در تعارض میان زندی مادر و زندگی جنین،تکلیف چیست؟آیا سقط جنینی که با تجویز پزشک انجام گرفته قتل محسوب می شود؟
در این مقاله علاوه بر پاسخ مستدل به این سوالات،به اثبات رسانده ایم که سقط جنین در هر مرحله از حیات جنین به طور مطلق حرام نیست،بلکه در شرایطی ضروری و حتی واجب می شود.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Decree of Abortion in Different Branches of Islamic Jurisprudence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Namazifar 1
  • Monireh Pourjavad 2
  • Fathohhah Ghorbani 3
1 Assistant Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Islamic Law, Faculty of Islamic Sciences and Researches, Qazvin Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women’s Health Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 M.Sc. of Islamic Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Islamic Law, Faculty of Islamic Sciences and Researches, Qazvin Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the issues which counterpart medicine and ethics is abortion. Since the fetus passes two stages from arise till final development which at first level has not any spirit and at second level gains spirit, a group of jurists based on the evidence believe that in moral view, abortion of fetus with spirit is not allowed at all. But in scientist and medical view, abortion is allowed for the fetus that leads to death of mother and causes severe body harms in a manner that causes hard continuation of life; also the fetus that has a lot of abnormalities which his/her birth actually is the animal life without any understanding and spending heavy money for his/her is useless. In challenge of ethics and the resulted loss, what is the best way to solve the problem? Does the abortion in any condition opposite to ethics and is forbidden? Really, what kind of abortion is not allowed? What should do in argument task between life of mother and fetus? Whether abortion which is prescribed by a doctor is considered homicide?
 
In this article, in addition to the reasonable answer to these questions, we have proved that abortion in any level of its life is not absolutely forbidden but in some conditions is necessary and even obligation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abortion
  • Blood Money
  • Ethics
  • Licensing
  • Sanctity
  • Soul
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