1. Verbeke W, Bourdeaudhuij I. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Appetite 2007
2. Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2006.
3. Hatami H. [Textbook of public health]. 2nd ed. Tehran:Arjmand;2008:196,42 [in Persian].
4. Wu G, Bazer FW, Cudd TA, Meininger CJ, Spencer TE. Maternal nutrition and fetal development. J Nutr 2004
5. Mitchell MK. Nutrition across the life span. 2nd ed. Toronto:Saunders;2003:102-35.
6. Fowles ER. Comparing pregnant women's nutritional knowledge to their actual dietary intake. MCN Am J
Matern Child Nurs 2002 May-Jun;27(3):171-7.
7. Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 May;71(5
8. Fowles ER. Prenatal nutrition and birth outcomes. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2004 Nov-Dec;33(6):809-22.
9. Godfrey KM, Barker DJ. Fetal nutrition and adult disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 May;71(5 Suppl):1344S-52S.
10. Rodrıguez-Bernal CL, Rebagliato M, Iniguez C, Vioque J, Navarrete-Munoz E, et al. Diet quality in early
pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and
Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain. Am J Clin Nutr 2010 Jun;91(6):1659-66.
10. Fakhri M, Shirvani-Ahmad M. [Nutrition during pregnancy and delivery]. Tehran:Roshan Ketab;2005:2-5. [in
11. Simbar M. [The guideline of medical science education]. Tehran:Golban;2004:106. [in Persian].
12. Rezaian A. [Principles of management]. 2nd ed. Tehran:Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guiding;2010:86-7. [in
13. Abedini Z, Ahmari Tehran H, Gaini M, Khorami Rad A. [Dietary food intake of pregnant women based on food
guide pyramid and its related factors] [Article in Persian]. Iran J Nurs 2011;24(73):36-46.
14. Delvarian M, Ebrahimi H, Haghighi N. [Nutritonal status of pregnant women refer to Shahroodhealth centers
and related factors] [Article in Persian]. J Birjand Univ Med Sci 2007;13(4):42-8.
15. Bojar I, Wdowiak L, Humeniuk E, Blaziak P. Change in the quality of diet during pregnancy in comparison with
WHO and EU recommendations--environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Ann Agric Environ Med
16. Shojaei K, Parsai S, Falah N. [Assessment of nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices inn pregnant women,
in university hospital of Tehran] [Article in Persian]. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci 2001;3(8):70-5.
17. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Rouse DJ, Spong CY. Williams obstetrics. 23rd ed. New
18. Wilkinson SA, Miller YD, Watson B. Prevalence of health behaviours in pregnancy at service ebtry in a
Queensland health service district. Aust N Z Public Health 2009 Jun;33(3):228-33.
19. Haste FM, Brooke OG, Anderson HR, Bland JM, Peacock JL. Social determinants of nutrient intake in smokers
and non-smokers during pregnancy. J Epidemiol Community Health 1990 Sep;44(3):205-9.
20. Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Kleinman KP, Oken E, Gillman MW. Dietary quality during pregnancy
varies by maternal characteristics in Project Viva: a US cohort. J Am Diet Assoc 2009 Jun;109(6):1004-11.
21. Bodnar LM, Siega-Riz AM. A Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy detects variation in diet and differences by
sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr 2002 Dec;5(6):801-9.
22. Wu DY, BRAT G, Milla G, Kim J. Knowledge and use of folic acid for prevention of birth defects amongst
Honduran women. Reprod Toxicol 2007 Jun;23(4):600-6.
23. Riazi H, Bashirian S. [The pattern of folic acid intake in pregnant women referring to Fatemieh hospital in
Hamadan, 2005] [Article in Persian]. Koomesh 2009;10(3):171-7.
24. Garica Carballo MM, Gonzalez Gonzalez AI, Jimenez Garcia R.[Prophylaxis of neural tube defects with folic
acid in pregnant women from a health district] [Article in Spanish]. Aten Primaria 2003 Feb 15;31(2):98-103.
25. Morin P, De Wals P, St-Cyr-Tribble D, Niyonsenga T, Payette H. Pregnancy planning: a determinant of folic
acid supplements use for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. Can J Public Health 2002 JulAug;93(4):259-63.
26. Boddie AM, Dedlow ER, Nackashi JA, Opalko FJ, Kauwell GP, Gregory JF 3rd, et al. Folate absorption in
women with a history of neural tube defect-affected pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jul;72(1):154-58.
27. Williamson C. Nutrition in pregnancy. Br Nutr Found Nutr Bullet 2006;31:28-59