تأثیر سرب بر زمان بلوغ دختران و پسران: یک مقاله مروری نظام‌مند

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی PHD بهداشت باروری، کمیته پژوهشی دانشجویان، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات مامایی و بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات مامایی و بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشجوی دکترای بهداشت باروری، کمیته پژوهشی دانشجویان، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

5 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، واحد ارومیه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ارومیه، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: بلوغ، دوران تغییرات تکاملی از کودکی به بزرگسالی و کسب قدرت باروری می­باشد. زمان بلوغ احتمالاً در بروز خطراتی در آینده مانند سرطان، سندرم متابولیک و بیماری‌های قلبی - عروقی تأثیر دارد. شواهد متعددی نشانگر نقش مواجهات محیطی در تغییر زمان بلوغ می­باشد. مطالعه مروری حاضر با هدف تعیین تأثیر سرب بر زمان بلوغ دختران و پسران بر اساس مطالعات انجام گرفته در این زمینه انجام گرفت.
روش‌کار: در این مطالعه مروری، مقالات انگلیسی و فارسی مربوط به مطالعات مشاهده­ای ایندکس شده در پایگاه­های اطلاعاتی SID، ISI Web of Science، Scopus، PubMed، Embase و Google Scholar در بازه زمانی سال 2018-2000 با ترکیبات مختلف کلمات کلیدی "سرب" و "بلوغ " به‌دست آمده از MESH انتخاب شدند. از مجموع 182 مقاله بررسی شده، 12 مقاله مرتبط با هدف و با توجه به معیارهای ورود و خروج و بررسی کیفیت گزارش مقالات بر اساس چک‌لیست STROBE انتخاب شدند.
یافته‌ها: 12 مقاله در دو حیطه تأثیر سرب بر بلوغ دختران و پسران دسته‌بندی شدند. در اکثر مطالعات در دختران سطوح مختلف سرب خون به‌خصوص سطوح بالا، با تأخیر در بروز منارک، تکامل پستان و رویش موهای پوبیس ارتباط آماری معنی­داری داشت و در پسران نیز ارتباط آماری معنی­داری بین سطوح متفاوت سرب خون مخصوصاً سطوح بالا، با تأخیر در روند بلوغ از جمله افزایش حجم بیضه­ها و رویش موهای پوبیس وجود داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: سرب می­تواند در روند طبیعی بلوغ تأثیر بگذارد و مخصوصاً در ایجاد تأخیر در بلوغ دختران و پسران مؤثر باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of lead on puberty time in girls and boys: a systematic review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahin Bazzazian 1
  • Masoumeh Simbar 2
  • Giti Ozgoli 3
  • Tahereh Mokhtarian Gilani 1
  • Malihe Ghiasvand 4
  • Nasrin Azimi 1
  • Zahra Kiani 1
  • Maryam Hajiesmaeilloo 5
1 PHD Candidate, Department of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4 PHD Candidate, Department of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5 M.Sc. of Midwifery, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Puberty is the period of developmental changes from childhood to adulthood and the acquisition of fertility. The time of puberty likely affects future risks such as cancer, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Many evidences point to the role of environmental exposure in changing the time of puberty. This review article was performed with aim to investigate the effect of lead on pubertytime in girls and boys based on the studies performed in this field.
Methods: In this review article, English and Persian articles related to observational studies which were indexed in databases of Embase, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, SID, and Google Scholar during 2000-2018 with different combinations of the keywords of "lead” and "Puberty" were selected from Medical Subject Headings (MESH). From 182 reviewed articles, 12 articled related to the aim were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality of reporting articles according to STROBEchecklist. 
Results: 12 articles were classified in two domains of lead effects on the puberty of girls and boys. The results of most studies showed that there was a statistically significant association between blood lead levels in girls, especially high levels, with delayed appearance of menarche, development of breast and growth of pubic hair. In boys, there was a statistically significant association between blood lead levels, especially high levels, with a delay in the process of puberty, including increased testicular mass and growth of pubic hair.
Conclusion: Lead can affect the natural process of puberty, and especially is effective in delaying puberty of girls and boys.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lead
  • puberty
  • puberty delay
  • puberty precocious
  • Sexual maturation
  1. Berek JS, Adashi EY, Hillard PA. Novak's gynecology. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
  2. Day FR, Elks CE, Murray A, Ong KK, Perry JR. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study. Sci Rep 2015; 5:11208.
  3. Parent AS, Franssen D, Fudvoye J, Pinson A, Bourguignon JP. Current changes in pubertal timing: revised vision in relation with environmental factors including endocrine disruptors. Endocr Dev 2016; 29:174-84.
  4. Health problems caused by lead. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Available at: URL: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/lead/health.html; 2018.
  5. At-risk populations. National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Health Science and Practice. Available at: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips.htm; 2019.
  6. World Health Organization. Lead poisoning and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
  7. Blood lead levels in children fact sheet. National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Health Science and Practice. Available at: URL: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/ACCLPP/blood_lead_levels.htm; 2017.
  8. Shen W, Chen J, Yin J, Wang SL. Selenium protects reproductive system and foetus development in a rat model of gestational lead exposure. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20(4):773-80.
  9. Kosari A, Hosseinzadeh Colagar A, Dabidi Roshan V. Effects of endurance training and curcumin supplementation on sperm count and motility and reproductive hormones in rats exposed to lead acetate. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2012; 15(11):22-33. (Persian).
  10. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
  11. Selevan SG, Rice DC, Hogan KA, Euling SY, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Bethel J. Blood lead concentration and delayed puberty in girls. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(16):1527-36.
  12. Wu T, Buck GM, Mendola P. Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S girls: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111(5):737-41.
  13. Denham M, Schell L, Deane G, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio AP, et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics 2005; 115(2):e127-34.
  14. Naicker N, Norris SA, Mathee A, Becker P, Richter L. Lead exposure is associated with a delay in the onset of puberty in South African adolescent females: findings from the Birth to Twenty cohort. Sci Total Environ 2010; 408(21):4949-54.
  15. Schell LM, Gallo MV. Relationships of putative endocrine disruptors to human sexual maturation and thyroid activity in youth. Physiol Behav 2010; 99(2):246-53.
  16. Den Hond E, Dhooge W, Bruckers L, Schoeters G, Nelen V, Van De Mieroop E, et al. Internal exposure to pollutants and sexual maturation in Flemish adolescents. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2011; 21(3):224-33.
  17. Wolff MS, Britton JA, Boguski L, Hochman S, Maloney N, Serra N, et al. Environmental exposures and puberty in inner-city girls. Environ Res 2008; 107(3):393-400.
  18. Hauser R, Sergeyev O, Korrick S, Lee MM, Revich B, Gitin E, et al. Association of blood lead levels with onset of puberty in Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116(7):976-80.
  19. Williams PL, Sergeyev O, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Burns JS, Humblet O, et al. Blood lead levels and delayed onset of puberty in a longitudinal study of Russian boys. Pediatrics 2010; 125(5):e1088-96.
  20. Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Ann Internal Med 2007; 147(8):573-7.
  21. Khani H, Aazam N, Ozgoli G, Pour Ebrahim T, Hamzeh Gardeshi Z. The relationship between mental stress and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: a review article. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2017; 20(7):61-70. (Persian).
  22. Halimi L, Haghdoost AA, Alizadeh SM. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Iranian women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med J Islamic Republic Iran 2013; 27(3):132.
  23. Gollenberg AL, Hediger ML, Lee PA, Himes JH, Buck Louis GM. Association between lead and cadmium and reproductive hormones in peripubertal US girls. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118(12):1782-7.  
  24. Fleisch AF, Burns JS, Williams PL, Lee MM, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, et al. Blood lead levels and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in peripubertal boys. Environ Health Perspect 2013; 121(7):854-8.
  25. Burns JS, Williams PL, Lee MM, Revich B, Sergeyev O, Hauser R, et al. Peripubertal blood lead levels and growth among Russian boys. Environ Int 2017; 106:53-9.
  26. Choi JH, Yoo HW. Control of puberty: genetics, endocrinology, and environment. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013; 20(1):62-8.
  27. Gandhi J, Hernandez RJ, Chen A, Smith NL, Sheynkin YR, Joshi G, et al. Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis activity, spermatogenesis, and sperm function promote infertility in males with lead poisoning. Zygote 2017; 25(2):103-10.
  28. Rattan S, Zhou C, Chiang C, Mahalingam S, Brehm E, Flaws JA. Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility. J Endocrinol 2017; 233(3):R109-29.
  29. Al-Omair MA, Sedky A, Ali A, Elsawy H. Ameliorative potentials of quercetin against lead-induced hematological and testicular alterations in Albino rats. Chin J Physiol 2017; 60(1):54-61.
  30. Raymond J, Brown MJ. Childhood blood lead levels-United States, 2007-2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015; 62:76-80.
  31. Brink LA, Talbott EO, Marsh GM, Sharma R, Benson S, Wu WC, et al. Revisiting nonresidential environmental exposures and childhood lead poisoning in the US: findings from Kansas, 2000–2005. J Environ Public Health 2016; 2016:8791686.
  32. Laidlaw M, Filippelli G, Sadler R, Gonzales C, Ball A, Mielke H. Children’s blood lead seasonality in flint, Michigan (USA), and soil-sourced lead hazard risks. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016; 13(4):358.
  33. Yartireh H, Hashemian AH. The effect of lead on number and sex type of children in men occupationally exposed to lead. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2013; 16(69):9-15. (Persian).
  34. Bayat F, Amir Aliakbari S, Dabiri A, Nasiri M, Osat Mellati A. The correlation between blood biomarkers and blood lead levels in preeclampsia. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2016; 19(34):10-7. (Persian).