بررسی جنبه های مشاوره ای قانونی و فقهی گامت اهدایی در ایران: مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زنان و مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات سلامت زنان، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 دکترای تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: با توجه به پیشرفت ­های اخیر درمان ناباروری و استفاده روزافزون از گامت اهدایی­، افزایش آگاهی ارائه‌دهندگان خدمات سلامت از مسائل شرعی و قانونی تخمک و اسپرم اهدایی جهت یک مشاوره کارآمد ضروری است، لذا مطالعه مروری حاضر با هدف بررسی مطالعات صورت گرفته پیرامون بررسی جنبه‌های مشاوره‌ای قانونی و فقهی گامت اهدایی در ایران انجام شد.
روش‌کار: مطالعه مروری حاضر حاصل مرور شواهد منتشر شده پیرامون جنبه‌های مذکور گامت اهدایی توسط نویسندگان ایرانی در فاصله سال‌های 2018-2006 در پایگاه‌های فارسیSID ، Iran Medex و انگلیسی PubMed،Google Scholar  و CINAHL می­ باشد. برای جمع ­آوری اطلاعات ابتدا مقالاتی که در عنوان و یا متن دارای یکی از کلمات "تخمک اهدایی"، "اسپرم اهدایی"، "گامت اهدایی"، "مشاوره"، "قانون" و "مذهب" بودند، به‌تنهایی یا در ترکیب با‌ هم به‌صورت فارسی و معادل انگلیسی جستجو شدند.
یافته‌ها: در این مطالعه مروری 27 مقاله استخراج شده از 304 مطالعه در ارتباط با مسائل قانونی و فقهی گامت اهدایی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جنبه­ های مختلف تخمک و اسپرم اهدایی در قانون ایران مشخص نیست. در زمینه پذیرش گامت اهدایی، اختلاف نظر بین علمای شیعه وجود دارد و همچنین دریافت گامت اهدایی مورد پذیرش اکثر علمای اهل سنت نیست. وجود مسائل قانونی مانند ارث و ابهام نسبی بر ضرورت مشاوره جامع و مستمر تأکید می­ نماید.
نتیجه‌گیری: در رابطه با اهدای گامت، قانون ایران سکوت را اختیار کرده است و فقها نیز در مشروعیت این موضوع، اختلاف نظر دارند، لذا تدوین یک راهنمای مشاوره­ ای جامع و در دسترس جهت پاسخ دادن به سؤالات قانونی و فقهی زوجین نیازمند گامت اهدایی، توسط سیستم قانونی و درمانی کشور ضروری می­ باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal and religious Counseling aspects of gamete donation in Iran: Review study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Fatemeh Nosrati 1
  • Malihe Amirian 2
  • Morvarid Irani 3
1 M.Sc. in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Health Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 PhD of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Regarding recent advances in infertility treatment and extended use of gamete donation, it is necessary to increase the awareness of health care providers about legal and religious aspects of oocyte and sperm donation in order to have an effective consultation. Therefore, this review article was done with aim to evaluate the studies performed on the legal and religious counseling aspects of gamete donation in Iran.
Methods: This review study is the result of reviewing the published evidences regarding different aspects of gamete donation in Iran from 2006 to 2018 in Persian databases of SID, Iran Medex, and English databases of Pub Med, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. For data collection, searching was done on the articles which had the key words of "oocyte donation", "gamete donation", "sperm donation", "counseling", "law ", and "religion" alone or in combination in the title or text as Persian and English.
Results:In this review study, 27 studies which were extracted from 304 studies related to legal and religious aspects of gamete donation were reviewed. In Iranian law, various aspects of oocyte and sperm donation are not clear. There is disagreement between Shia scholars regarding gamete donation and is not accepted by the majority Sunni scholars. Due to legal issues such as inheritance and Relative ambiguity, the need for continuous and comprehensive counseling is emphasized
Conclusion: The law of Iran has been silent regarding gamete donation, and jurisprudents also disagree on the legitimacy of this issue. Therefore, formulation of a comprehensive and accessible guide consultancy to answer the law and jurisprudence question of couples who need donated gametes is necessary by the legal and treatment system of the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Counseling
  • Gamete Donation
  • Law
  • Oocyte Donation
  • Religion
  • sperm donation
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