ارزیابی پیامدهای روانی و اجتماعی رحم جایگزین در مادر جایگزین و کودک حاصل از این روش: یک مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت‌های پرستاری و مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 مربی گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: یکی از تکنیک­های جدید کمک ­باروری، رحم­ جایگزین است که میزان استفاده از ­آن در­حال افزایش است. با­این وجود، پیامدهای روانی و اجتماعی این تکنیک، به­صورت جامع مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته ­است، لذا مطالعه مروری حاضر با ­هدف بررسی این پیامدها متعاقب رحم جایگزین در مادر­ جایگزین و کودک صورت گرفت.
روش­کار: در این مطالعه مروری جهت یافتن مطالعات مرتبط، در بازه زمانی 2018-1990 از پایگاه‌های فارسی SID و Magiran و پایگاه‌های انگلیسیPubmed ،Scopus ،Elsevier ، Weily online library، SID، Sciences Web Of و موتور جستجوی Google Scholar استفاده شد. برای دستیابی به تمام مقالات فارسی و انگلیسی مورد ­نظر از کلید­واژه‌های فارسی مادر جایگزین، ارتباط مادر-کودک، ارتباط مادر- جنین، ارتباط، پیامد روانی، پیامد اجتماعی و کلید­واژه‌های انگلیسی Surrogate mother، surrogacy،Maternal–fetal relations، mother-child relationships، surrogates’ family، bonding، attachment، outcome psychology، social outcome با همه ترکیبات احتمالی این کلمات استفاده شد. از بین 500 مقاله، 18 مقاله واجد شرایط پژوهش بود و برای این مطالعه انتخاب شدند.
یافته­ها: نتایج مطالعات مختلف بیانگر این مسأله بود که تولد کودک برای مادران جایگزین و خانواده متقاضی پدیده‌ای استرس­آور است که می‌تواند سبب افسردگی در مادر جایگزین شود. تفاوت عمده­ای در تکامل، ابعاد روانی و اجتماعی کودکان متولد شده به روش رحم جایگزین با کودکانی طبیعی وجود نداشت. نتایج تست­های شخصیتی و متغیرهای روا‌ن‌شناختی در بیشتر مادران جایگزین طبیعی بوده و آسیب­های روان‌شناختی جدی در آنان مشاهده نشده بود.
نتیجه­گیری: به­طور­کلی جایگزینی در اکثر مادران جایگزین تجربه­ای مثبت تلقی شده ­است. کودکان متولد ­شده نیز احساس خوبی نسبت به مادر جایگزین خود داشته و به­لحاظ روان‌شناختی، تفاوتی با کودکان طبیعی نداشته­اند. البته توجه به ­این نکته ضروری است که تفاوت در فرهنگ کشورها، تجربیات و سیستم­های حمایتی آنها، ممکن است بر پیامدهای روانی و اجتماعی در رحم جایگزین تأثیر­گذار باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Psychological and social consequences of surrogacy in surrogate mother and the resulted child: a review study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Savabi-Esfahani 1
  • Hadis Sourinejad 2
  • Elham Adib Moghaddam 3
  • Zahra Mohebbi 4
1 Assistant professor, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2 PhD Candidate in Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
3 PhD Candidate in Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
4 Instructor, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: One of the new assisted reproductive techniques is surrogacy, and the rate of using this technique is rising. However, the psychological and social consequences of this technique have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this review study was performed with aim to investigate these outcomes following surrogacy in surrogate mother and child.
Methods: In this review study, to find the related articles between1990-2018, Persian databases of SID and Magiran and English databases of Pubmed, Scopus, Elsevier, Wiley online library, Web Of Science, and Google Scholar search engine were searched. To access all articles in Persian and English, the Persian keywords including: surrogate mother, mother-child relationship, mother-fetus relationship, relationship, psychological outcome, social outcome and English keywords including Surrogate mother, surrogacy, Maternal -Fetal relationships, mother-child relationships, surrogates' family, bonding, attachment, psychology outcome, social outcome, with all possible combinations of these words were used. From 500 articles, 18 articles were eligible for research and were selected for this study.
Results: The results of various studies indicated that the birth of the child for surrogate mothers and applicant’s family is a stressful phenomenon that can lead to depression in surrogate mother. There was no significant difference between children born as surrogacy and normal children in terms of evolution, psychological and social dimensions. The results of personality tests and psychological variables were normal in most surrogate mothers and no serious psychological harms were observed.
Conclusion: In general, surrogacy is considered to be a positive experience in most mothers. Born children also have a good feeling to their surrogate mothers and have no psychological differences with normal children. Of course, it's important to note that differences in the culture of the countries, their experiences and supportive systems may affect psychological and social consequences of surrogacy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child
  • Mother
  • Social outcome
  • Psychological outcome
  • Surrogate Mother
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