تأثیر تمرینات هوازی در نوبتهای صبح و عصر در زنان باردار بر ترکیب بدنی زنان باردار تا دو ماه پس از زایمان

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

3 مربی گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: تمرینات ورزشی می­تواند با جلوگیری از افزایش بی‌رویه وزن طی بارداری، تضمین کننده سلامت مادر در حین بارداری و پس از آن باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی و مقایسه تأثیر ۱۲ هفته تمرین هوازی در نوبت­های صبح و عصر بر ترکیب بدنی زنان باردار تا 2 ماه پس از زایمان انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه نیمه‌تجربی در سال 1396 بر روی 90 زن باردار با سن بارداری 25-24 هفته در مشهد انجام شد. شرکت‌کنندگان در سه گروه تمرین هوازی صبح (29 نفر)، تمرین هوازی عصر (26 نفر) و گروه کنترل (27 نفر) قرار گرفتند. برنامه تمرینی شامل 12 هفته سه جلسه‌ای و مدت هر جلسه 55-35 دقیقه و شامل راه رفتن تداومی بود. شدت تمرین 60% ضربان قلب ذخیره بیشینه در جلسات ابتدایی بود که به 45% در جلسات پایانی کاهش یافت. پارامترهای درصد چربی بدن و شاخص توده بدنی مادر در ابتدا و انتهای پژوهش تعیین شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه20) و آزمون­های کولموگروف اسمیرنوف، تی زوجی و آنووا انجام گرفت. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: 12 هفته تمرین هوازی بر میانگین چربی بدن شرکت‌کنندگان تأثیر معناداری داشت (020/0=p)، ولی بین تمرین صبح و عصر تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت (422/0=p). تمرین هوازی منتخب بر میانگین شاخص توده بدنی شرکت‌کنندگان تأثیر معناداری داشت (022/0=p)، ولی بین تمرین صبح و عصر تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت (293/0=p).
نتیجه‌گیری: پروتکل تمرینات هوازی، از افزایش بیش از حد چربی بدن زنان باردار جلوگیری نموده و موجب می­شود زنان باردار در حین بارداری، وزن‌گیری مطلوب‌تری داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Aerobic Training in Morning and Evening on Maternal Body Composition Two Months Postpartum

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Ramezanpour 1
  • Azadeh Laeli 2
  • Zohreh Amirkhani 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
2 M.Sc. student in Sport Physiology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Instructor, Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Exercise can guarantee maternal health during pregnancy and after that by preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of 12 weeks aerobic training in the morning and evening routines on the body composition of pregnant women up to two months postpartum.
Methods:This quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 pregnant women with the gestational age of 25-24 weeks in Mashhad in 1396. The participants were divided into three groups, including morning aerobic exercise (n=29), evening aerobic training (n=26), and control group (n=27).The training program consisted of 12 weeks of three sessions with a duration of 35-35 min (each session) and included a continuous walk. Exercise intensity was 60% of the maximum heart rate reserve (HRR) in primary sessions, which dropped to 45% HRR in the final sessions. The parameters of body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20), Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, T-test, and Analysis of variance (P≤0.05).
Results: Twelve weeks of aerobic training had an effect on the body fat percentage of the participants (P=0.020), but there was no significant difference between the morning and evening exercises (P=0.422).The selected aerobic exercise had an effect on the BMI index of the participants (P=0.022), but there was no significant difference between the morning and evening exercises (P = 0.293).
Conclusion: The aerobic exercise protocol prevents hyperlipidemia in pregnant women and causes pregnant women to gain weight better during pregnancy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aerobic exercise
  • Body Fat
  • Body mass index
  1. Cunningham FG, MacDonald PC, Gant NF. Williams’s obstetrics. 24th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
  2. Robbins CL, Zapata LB, Farr SL, Kroelinger CD, Morrow B, Ahluwalia I, et al. Core state preconception health indicators-pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ 2014; 63(3):1-62.
  3. Gaillard R, Durmuş B, Hofman A, Mackenbach JP, Steegers EA, Jaddoe VW. Risk factors and outcomes of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013; 21(5):1046-55.
  4. Schummers L, Hutcheon JA, Bodnar LM, Lieberman E, Himes KP. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes by prepregnancy body mass index: a population-based study to inform prepregnancy weight loss counseling. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125(1):133-43.
  5. Leddy MA, Power ML, Schulkin J. The impact of maternal obesity on maternal and fetal health. Rev Obstet Gynecol 2008; 1(4):170-8.
  6. Stuebe AM, Oken E, Gillman MW. Associations of diet and physical activity during pregnancy with risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 201(1):58.e1-8.
  7. Evenson KR. Towards an understanding of change in physical activity from pregnancy through postpartum. Psychol Sport Exerc 2011; 12(1):36-45.
  8. Pruett MD, Caputo JL. Exercise guidelines for pregnant and postpartum women. Strength Cond J 2011; 33(3):100-3.
  9. Hickman S. The effects of exercise during pregnancy and postpartum. Senior Thesis Final Draft 2007; 11(2):33-45.
  10. Tella BA, Sokunbi OG, Akinlami OF, Afolabi B. Effects of aerobic exercises on the level of insomnia and fatigue in pregnant women. Internet J Gynecol Obstet 2011; 1:15.
  11. Pedersen BK. Physical activity and pregnancy. In: Ovesen PG, Møller JD, editors. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2012. P. 63-74.
  12. May L. Part 3: special considerations for exercise during pregnancy. ACSM’S Certified News 2012; 22(2):4-5.
  13. Ramezanpour MR, Mohammadnezhad M, Akhlaghi F. The effects of 12 weeks body balance and pelvic floor muscles exercise on back pain intensity during pregnancy. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2018; 20(11):1-7. (Persian).
  14. Duckitt K. Exercise during pregnancy: eat for one, exercise for two. BMJ 2011; 343(7834):1129.
  15. Hassall J. Exercise in pregnancy: a review of current evidence and guidelines. Essential Midirs 2011; 2(1):39-42.
  16. Saftlas AF, Logsden-Sackett N, Wang W, Woolson R, Bracken MB. Work, leisure-time physical activity, and risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160(8):758-65.
  17. Sorensen TK, Williams MA, Lee IM, Dashow EE, Thompson ML, Luthy DA. Recreational physical activity during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. Hypertension 2003; 41(6):1273-80.
  18. Gau ML, Chang CY, Tian SH, Lin KC. Effects of birth ball exercise on pain and self-efficacy during childbirth: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan. Midwifery 2011; 27(6):293-300.
  19. Yeo S, Steele NM, Chang MC, Leclaire SM, Ronis DL, Hayashi R. Effect of exercise on blood pressure in pregnant women with a high risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. J Reprod Med 2000; 45(4):293-8.
  20. Artal R, O'Toole M. Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37(1):6-12.
  21. Lochmuller EM, Friese K. Pregnancy and sports. MMW Fortschr Med 2005; 147(16):28-9.
  22. Riemann MK, Kanstrup Hansen IL. Effects on the foetus of exercise in pregnancy. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000; 10(1):12-9.
  23. Barakat R, Pelaez M, Cordero Y, Perales M, Lopez C, Coteron J, et al. Exercise during pregnancy protects against hypertension and macrosomia: randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016; 214(5):649.e1-8.
  24. Renault KM, Nørgaard K, Nilas L, Carlsen EM, Cortes D, Pryds O, et al. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of physical activity intervention assessed by pedometer with or without dietary intervention in obese pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 210(2):134.e1-9.
  25. Petrella E, Malavolti M, Bertarini V, Pignatti L, Neri I, Battistini NC, et al. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014; 27(13):1348-52.
  26. Price B, Amini SB, Kappler K. Exercise in pregnancy: effect of fitness and obstetric outcomes-a randomized controlled trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012; 44(12):2263-9.
  27. Ghodsi Z, Asltoghiri M. Maternal exercise during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in Iran. Proc Soc Behav Sci 2012; 46:2877-81.
  28. Sedaghati P, Ziaee V, Arjmand A. The effect of an ergometric training program on pregnants’ weight gain and low back pain. Gazz Med Ital Arch Sci Med 2007; 166(6):209-13.
  29. Garshasbi A, Faghih Zadeh S. The effect of exercise on the intensity of low back pain in pregnant woman. Int J of Gynecol Obstet 2005; 88(3):271-5.