بررسی مقایسه مشاوره حضوری و حمایت تلفنی بر خودکارآمدی زایمان در زنان نخستزا

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی گروه مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه آمار، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: ارتقاء آگاهی مادران و آموزش صحیح در دوران بارداری، از عوامل مهم در ایجاد آمادگی جهت رویارویی با فرآیند زایمان است. طبق تئوری یادگیری اجتماعی بندورا، خودکارآمدی به اطمینان فرد در مورد توانایی‌اش برای رفتار به طریقی که به نتیجه مطلوب بیانجامد، اشاره می‌کند. مطالعه حاضر با هدف مقایسه مشاوره حضوری و حمایت تلفنی بر خودکارآمدی زایمان در زنان نخست‌زا انجام شد.
روش‌کار: اینمطالعه کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی شده دو سوکور در سال 1396 بر روی 163 زن نخست‌زا 35-18 ساله مراجعه‌کننده به مراکز بهداشتی شهر زاهدان انجام شد. افراد در سه گروه مداخله و کنترل قرار گرفتند. در فاصله هفته 32-20 بارداری، افراد گروه مشاوره حضوری، 4 جلسه مشاوره 60 دقیقه‌ای و گروه حمایت تلفنی، 4 جلسه مشاوره تلفنی به مدت 20 دقیقه دریافت نمودند. گروه کنترل، مراقبت‌های معمول دریافت نمودند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه مشخصات فردی و خودکارآمدی زایمان و فرم ثبت تمرینات بود. پیش‌آزمون در هفته 20 و پس‌آزمون در هفته 36-34 بارداری و با در نظر گرفتن فاصله 2 هفته از مداخله انجام شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 19) و آزمون‌های غیر پارامتری کروسکال والیس و ویلکاکسون انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنادار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: قبل از مداخله، بین گروه‌ها از نظر نمره خودکارآمدی اختلاف معناداری مشاهده نشد (05/0p>). پس از مداخله میانگین نمره خودکارآمدی در گروه مشاوری حضوری (0001/0>p) بیشتر از حمایت تلفنی (001/0>p) افزایش یافت و در گروه کنترل افزایش معناداری نداشت (57/0=p).
نتیجه‌گیری: مشاوره حضوری بیشتر از حمایت تلفنی در ارتقاء خودکارآمدی زایمان مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of In-Person Counseling and Telephone Support on Delivery Self-Efficacy in Primiparous Women

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farnoush Khojasteh 1
  • Zahra Eshteharian Dokht 2
  • Hossein Ansari 3
1 Instructor, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
2 M.Sc. student, Department of Counseling in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Statistic, School of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Enhancing the mothers' knowledge and proper education during pregnancy is of the important factors in preparing the mothers for the process of delivery. According to Bandura's social learning theory, self-efficacy refers to the individual's confidence in his ability to behave in a way leading to the desired outcome. This study was performed with aim to compare in-person counseling and phone support on delivery self-efficacy in primiparous women.
Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 163 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old who referred to Zahedan health centers in 2017. Subjects were placed in three intervention and control groups. At 20-32 weeks of pregnancy, in-person counseling group received four sessions of 60 minutes counseling and phone support group received four sessions of 20 minutes phone counseling. Control group received routine cares. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire, delivery self-efficacy, and homework registration form. The pretest was completed at 20 weeks and posttest was completed at 34-36 weeks of pregnancy. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and by non-parametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found among the groups in terms of self-efficacy scores. After the intervention, the mean score of self-efficacy increased in in-person counseling group (P <0.0001) than phone support group (P <0.001), but it did not significantly increase in the control group (P=0.57).
Conclusion: In-person counseling is more effective than phone support n enhancing the delivery self-efficacy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Self-efficacy
  • Delivery
  • In-person counseling
  • telephone support
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