تأثیر مداخله آموزشی مبتنی بر نظریه خودکارآمدی و سواد سلامت بر نتایج بارداری: کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی ‌شده

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت، مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت، مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استاد گروه آمار زیستی و اپیدمیولوژی، مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر سلامت، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه:سواد سلامت مادران در دوران بارداری بیانگر مهارت‌های اجتماعی و شناختی است که انگیزه و توانایی مادران را برای دریافت و استفاده از آگاهی‌های مفید برای حفظ و ارتقاء سلامت خود و فرزندانشان نشان می‌دهد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین تأثیر آموزش مبتنی بر نظریه خودکارآمدی و سواد سلامت مادری بر نتایج بارداری در مادران باردار انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی شده در سال 1395 بر روی 76 مادر باردار که به منظور انجام مراقبت‌های معمول دوران بارداری به مراکز جامع سلامت شهرستان مشهد مراجعه کردند، انجام شد. افراد به دو گروه آزمون و کنترل تخصیص یافتند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها شامل پرسشنامه‌های اطلاعات فردی، سواد سلامت مادری، نتایج بارداری و خودکارآمدی تغذیه‌ای بود. پرسشنامه‌ها تکمیل و سپس مداخله آموزشی با توجه به نتایج مطالعه اولیه توصیفی، برای گروه مداخله اجرا شد. پرسشنامه‌ها بلافاصله و بعد از گذشت 3 ماه از مداخله آموزشی مجدداً تکمیل گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 15) و آزمون‌های تی مستقل، کای دو، آنالیز واریانس یک‌طرفه و آنالیز داده‌های تکراری انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: قبل از مداخله تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه آزمون و کنترل از نظر سطح سواد سلامت مادری، خودکارآمدی و مراقبت‌های دوران بارداری وجود نداشت (001/0<p)، ولی بعد از مداخله، تفاوت معناداری در میانگین سطح سواد سلامت مادران و خودکارآمدی در گروه آزمون مشاهده شد (001/0≥p).
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این مداخله کارآیی مداخله آموزشی مبتنی بر نظریه خودکارآمدی بر ارتقاء سطح سواد سلامت مادران باردار، نتیجه مطلوب بارداری و به‌دنبال آن به‌دنیا آمدن نوزادی با وزن طبیعی را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Self-efficacy Theory and Health Literacy Strategies on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Sara Kharazi 1
  • Nooshin Peyman 2
  • Habibolah Esmaily 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Health Education and health promotion, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Maternal health literacy during pregnancy can refer to the socio-cognitive skills, which determine the motivation and ability of mothers to understand and use beneficial information in order to maintain and promote health of themselves and their children. The present study aimed to determine the effects of an educational program based on self-efficacy theory and health literacy strategies on pregnancy outcomes at healthcare centers affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 76 pregnant women, who referred to the healthcare centers of Mashhad for routine pregnancy period checkups in 2015. The participants were assigned to the two groups of intervention and control. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, maternal health literacy and pregnancy outcome questionnaire (MHLAPQ), and perceived dietary self-efficacy questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the participants, followed by implementation of the educational intervention for the test group according to a pilot study. Afterwards, the questionnaires were again completed immediately post-intervention, as well as within a three-month interval (follow-up). All the data were statistically analyzed by t-test, Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 15. For all tests, P < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The findings of this study demonstrate that no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups in terms of maternal health literacy, self-efficacy, and pregnancy period cares pre-intervention (P>0.001). On the other hand, we reported a significant difference post-intervention regarding the mean scores of maternal health literacy and self-efficacy in the test group (P ≥ 0.001).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the designed educational intervention based on self-efficacy theory might improve maternal health literacy and promote normal birth weight in newborns.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Health Literacy
  • Pregnancy outcomes
  • Pregnant mother
  • Self-efficacy theory
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