وضعیت ناخوشی‌های پس از زایمان و عوامل مرتبط با آن، گناباد- 1395

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات توسعه اجتماعی و ارتقای سلامت، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد پرستاری مراقبت‌های ویژه، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پیراپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران.

3 کارشناس مامایی، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران.

4 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، مرکز بهداشت شماره سه، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: ناخوشی­های پس از زایمان به‌عنوان یکی از مشکلات بهداشتی در سطح جهان مطرح هستند که اطلاعات اندکی در مورد فراوانی و نوع آنها در جوامع مختلف وجود دارد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی وضعیت ناخوشی­های پس از زایمان و عوامل مرتبط با آن در شهر گناباد انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه مقطعی در سال­های 95-1394 بر روی 158 نفر از زنانی که جهت مراقبت­های دوران بارداری به مراکز سلامت جامعه شهر گناباد مراجعه کرده بودند، انجام شد. پرسشنامه مشخصات فردی و باروری مقیاس سلامت عمومی 28 سؤالی (GHQ28) در طی دوران بارداری و پرسشنامه سنجش ناخوشی­های پس از زایمان جهت سنجش عوارض دو ماه پس از زایمان تکمیل شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 16) و آزمون‌های کولموگروف اسمیرنوف و کای اسکوئر انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته­ها: شایع‌ترین مشکلات پس از زایمان به ترتیب درد محل برش سزارین (69%)، خستگی (50%)، کمردرد (5/46%)، درد محل اپی‌زیاتومی (5/46%) و اختلالات خواب (4/44%) بودند. بین شیوع سردرد با روش تغذیه نوزاد (038/0=p)، یبوست با سن پایین‌تر (027/0=p)، نفخ و روش زایمان (018/0=p)، سن بالاتر و درد محل برش سزارین (017/0=p)، سن کمتر و درد محل اپی‌زیاتومی (008/0=p)، تکرر ادرار و شغل مادر (029/0=p)، زخم نیپل و سن کمتر (013/0=p)، زخم نیپل و شیردهی انحصاری (040/0=p) و سوزش ادرار و وزن نوزاد (0001/0p<) ارتباط آماری معنی‌داری وجود داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: درد محل سزارین، خستگی، کمردرد، درد محل اپی‌زیاتومی و اختلالات خواب، شایع‌ترین ناخوشی­های پس از زایمان هستند. با توجه به شیوع نسبتاً بالای این مشکلات توصیه می­شود که ارزیابی و مراقبت­های دقیق پس از زایمان با تمرکز بر تشخیص و درمان این ناخوشی­ها انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Postpartum Morbidities and the Influential Factors in Gonabad, Iran (2016)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narjes Bahri 1
  • Arezou Davarinia Motlagh Quchan 2
  • Farideh Attar 3
  • Fatemeh Hadizadeh Talasaz 1
  • Nasrin Bahri 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
2 M.Sc. in Critical Care Nursing, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Paramedicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
3 B.Sc. in Midwifery, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
4 M.Sc. in Midwifery, Health Center Number 3, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Postpartum morbidities are among the most important health problems across the world. However, the frequency and types of these morbidities remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate postpartum morbidities and the influential factors in the women in Gonabad city, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Gonabad city, located in the northeast of Iran, during 2015-2016. Subjects included 158 pregnant women referring to the community health center in Gonabad for prenatal care. Data on the pregnancy period were collected using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and demographic questionnaires, and the scale of postpartum morbidities was used two months after delivery. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Chi-square at the significance level of P<0.05.
Results: The most common postpartum morbidities included pain in the C-section sutures (69%), fatigue (50%), backache (46.5%), episiotomy pain (46.5%), and sleep disturbance (44.4%). Moreover, statistically significant correlations were observed between headaches and feeding method (P=0.038), constipation and low maternal age (P=0.027), flatulence and mode of delivery (P=0.018), pain in C-section sutures and high maternal age (P=0.017), episiotomy pain and low maternal age (P=0.008), urinary frequency and maternal occupation (P=0.029), sore nipples and low maternal age (P=0.013), sore nipples and exclusive breastfeeding (P=0.040), and dysuria and neonatal weight (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: According to the results, the most common postpartum morbidities were pain in C-section site, fatigue, backache, episiotomy pain, and sleep disturbance. Considering the high frequency of these morbidities, it is recommended that accurate postpartum examinations be performed, focusing on the timely diagnosis and treatment of these problems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Postpartum Period
  • Vaginal delivery
  • Cesarean section
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