Prevalence of Infections Associated with Port and Predisposing Factors in Women with Common Cancers Under Chemotherapy Referred to Hospitals in Tabriz in 2015

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences,Tabriz, Iran.

3 M.Sc. in Nursing Internal-Surgical, Nursing Research Committee of Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Introduction: Portal infection is one of the complications that can affect the results of chemotherapy and need to other treatments. Therefore, researchers recommend that caution should be exercised until the reasons for this request have been identified and no action has been taken to control and eliminate them. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of related infections and port-specific factors in women with common cancer under chemotherapy.
Methods: This study was conducted on 85 patients with prevalent cancers among women and port candidates for chemotherapy in Tabriz hospitals in 2015. Clinical signs and laboratory tests (measuring white blood cell and erythrocyte sedimentation levels) confirming port-based infection were recorded in researcher-made checklists. Subsequently, the data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 19) using the descriptive statistics and independent t-test. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 13 patients suffered from port infection after the port was placed. There was a significant relationship between the number of chemotherapy sessions (P=0/002), the number of days of in-situ port (P=0/001), and the number of hospital stay days between the two groups with or without infection after the port placement (P=0/001).
Conclusion:The high prevalence of infection in the port site (15%) in this study can affect the duration of chemotherapy and the trust of team members and patients. Therefore, it is suggested not to refer to the results of the present study in decision-making for port insertion in chemotherapy. On the other hand, being aware of the extent of port-related infection in the present study can change the policies of the hospitals and physicians to control the infection and lead to finding optimal ways of using it.


  1. Barry JA, Azizi MM, Hardiman PJ. Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2014; 20(5):748-58.
  2. Wittenberger T, Sleigh S, Reisel D, Zikan M, Wahl B, Alunni-Fabbroni M, et al. DNA methylation markers for early detection of women’s cancer: promise and challenges. Epigenomics 2014; 6(3):311-27.
  3. Van Lier E, Van Kranen H, Van Vliet JA, Rahamat-Langendoen JC. Estimated number of new cancer cases attributable to infection in the Netherlands in 2003. Cancer Lett 2008; 227(2):226-31.
  4. Iavari P, Mousavi Zadeh M, Sadrolhefazi B, Khodabakhshi R, Mehrabi I. Survey of breast cancer risk factors in women attending in Shohadaie Tajrish hospital of Tehran in 2004. Pajoohande J 2006; 11(1):55-61. (Persian).
  5. Kim HL, Puymon MR, Qin M, Guru K, Mohler JL. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology™. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2014; 8(2):1-2.
  6. Wolinsky JB, Colson YL, Grinstaff MW. Local drug delivery strategies for cancer treatment: gels, nanoparticles, polymeric films, rods, and wafers. J Control Release 2012; 159(1):14-26.
  7. Leow JJ, Martin-Doyle W, Fay André AP. Choueiri TK, Chang SL, Bellmunt J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Eur Urol 2014; 66(3):529-41.
  8. Polovich M, Whitford JM, Olsen Mikaela MM. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice. 1st ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society; 2014. P. 111-9.
  9. Mazevet M, Moulin M, Llach-Martinez A, Chargari C, Deutsch É, Gomez AM, et al. Complications of chemotherapy, a basic science update. Presse Med 2013; 42(9):e352-61.
  10. Lynn JJ, Chen KF, Weng YM, Chiu TF. Risk factors associated with complications in patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in emergency department. Hematol Oncol 2013; 31(4)189-96.
  11. Kim JT, Oh TY, Chang WH, Jeong YK. Clinical review and analysis of complications of totally implantable venous access devices for chemotherapy. Med Oncol 2012; 29(2):1361-4.
  12. Teichgräber UK, Pfitzmann R, Hofmann HA. Central venous port systems as an integral part of chemotherapy. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2011; 108(9):147-53.
  13. Yoshida Y, Hoshino S, Aisu N, Naito M, Tanimura S, Mogi A, et al. Administration of chemotherapy via the median cubital vein without implantable central venous access ports: port-free chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Int J Clin Oncol 2015; 20(2):332-7.
  14. Deschamps F, Rao P, Teriitehau C, Hakime A, Malka D, Boige V, et al. Percutaneous femoral implantation of an arterial port catheter for intraarterial chemotherapy: feasibility and predictive factors of long-term functionality. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010; 21(11):1681-8.
  15. Lebeaux D, Larroque B, Gellen-Dautremer J, Leflon-Guibout V, Dreyer C, Bialek S, et al. Clinical outcome after a totally implantable venous access port-related infection in cancer patients: a prospective study and review of the literature. Medicine 2012; 91(6):309-8.
  16. Teichgräber UK, Kausche S, Nagel SN, Gebauer B. Outcome analysis in 3,160 implantations of radiologically guided placements of totally implantable central venous port systems. Eur Radiol 2011; 21(6):1224-36.
  17. Beckers MM, Ruven HJ, Seldenrijk CA, Prins MH, Biesma DH. Risk of thrombosis and infections of central venous catheters and totally implanted access ports in patients treated for cancer. Thromb Res 2010; 125(4):318-21.
  18. Atashkhoei S, Fakhari S, Pourfathi H, Bilehjani E, Garabaghi P, Asiaei A. Effect of oxytocin infusion on reducing the blood loss during abdominal myomectomy: a doubleā€blind randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2017;124(2):292-8.
  19. Hashemzadeh K, Hashemzadeh S, Dehdilani M. Risk factors and outcomes of acute renal failure after open cardiac surgery. Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals. 2012;20(3):275-80.
  20. Bakhshaei MH, Manuchehrian N, Khoshraftar E, Mohamadipour-Anvary H, Sanatkarfar M. Analgesic effects of intrathecal sufentanil added to lidocaine 5% in elective cesarean section. Acta Medica Iranica. 2010 (6):380-4.
  21. Zomorrodi A, Anvari HM, Kakaei F, Solymanzadeh F, Khanlari E, Bagheri A. Bolus Injection Versus Infusion of Furosemide in Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Urology journal. 2017;14(2):3013-7.
  22. Kolahdouzan K, Eydi M, Anvari HM, Golzari SE, Abri R, Ghojazadeh M, et al. Comparing the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen and intravenous meperidine in pain relief after outpatient urological surgery. Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2014;4(5):e20337.
  23. Dadmehr H, Negargar S, Mahmoodpoor A, Ghaderi B, Anvari H, Rahmani A. Comparison of the effects of endotracheal tube and laryngeal mask airway on immediate postoperative complications in elective operations. 2010:4(11):191-197.
  24. Piran S, Ngo V, McDiarmid S, Le Gal G, Petrcich W, Carrier M. Incidence and risk factors of symptomatic venous thromboembolism related to implanted ports in cancer patients. Thromb Res 2014; 133(1):30-3.
  25. Deschamps F, Elias D, Goere D, Malka D, Ducreux M, Boige V, et al. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy: a comparison of percutaneous versus surgical implantation of port-catheters. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2011; 34(5):973-9.
  26. Sawayama H, Hayashi N, Watanabe M, Takamori H, Beppu T, Baba H. The central vein access port and catheter in outpatient chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a retrospective study of 101 patients. Surg Today 2012; 41(1):29-34.
  27. Viana Taveira MR, Lima LS, de Araújo CC, de Mello MJ. Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in pediatric oncology patients with a totally implantable venous access port: a cohort study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017; 64(2):336-42.