Comparison of the effects of two selected exercises of Theraband and Pilates on the balance and strength of lower limb in elderly women

Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc of Corrective Exercises and Pathology, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Kashmar excellent Education Institute, Kashmar, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Mashhad Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran.


Introduction: Poor balance is one of the risk factors of falling, injury and even death of elderly. Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of falling among the elderly, its rehabilitation and balance are the main concern of the researchers. The present study was performed with aim to compare the effects of two selected exercises of Theraband and Pilates on the balance and strength of lower limb in elderly women.
Methods: This semi-experimental (interventional) study was performed with pre-test and post-test on 45 women aged 60-75 years old in Mashhad in 2014. They were randomly divided into three groups: the Theraband training, Pilates training, and control groups. The experimental groups participated for six weeks in Theraband and Pilates trainings. The control group did their daily activities during the project. Before and after the six weeks of training, Berg test (dynamic balance) and thirty Second Chair Stand test (strength of lower limb) were given. Data were analyzed by covariance analysis (ANCOVA), Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni post hoc test and Mean Difference. P˂0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Pilates and Theraband trainings led to a significant improvement in the dynamic balance and strength of lower limb in elderly women. Furthermore, Theraband trainings was more affective on the dynamic balance and Pilates trainings on the strength of lower limb.
Conclusions: both Pilates and Theraband trainings lead to the increase of the dynamic balance and strength of lower limb in elderly women, but, Pilates training was more effective on strength of lower limb and Theraband training was more effective on dynamic balance.


  1. Stevens JA, Olson S. Reducing falls and resulting hip fractures among older women. MMWR 2000; 49(RR-2): 3–12.
  2. Seadiabdoli S. The relationship between range of motion, strength, ratio of agonist and antagonist muscular strength balance with falling in elderly [dissertation]. (Tehran): ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY Central Tehran Branch; 2012.72p. (In Persian)[S1] 
  3. Shumway-cook A, Woollacatt MH. Motor control: Theory and practical applications. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williiams & Willkins; 2007.
  4. Rasteh H, Olyaei GH, Abdolvahab M, Jalili M, Jalaei SH. Efficacy of Cawthorne & Cooksey exercise on balance improvement in elderly persons in Mashhad. J  Mod Rehabil 2009; 3(1 and 2): 49-53.
  5. Stevens J A. Falls among older adults—risk factors and prevention strategies. J Safety Res 2005; 36(4):  409–11.
  6. Alirezaie F. The effect of a water exercise program on static and dynamic balance in elder women [dissertation]. (Tehran): Tarbiat Moallem University; 2008. 103p. (In Persian)[p2] 
  7. Hanachi P, Kaviani G. Impact of mini trampoline exercise on dynamic balance in old women. Bimonthly Journal of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 14 (2): 148-55. (Persian)
  8. Mojabi M. Dizziness in elderly. The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 11 (2) :71-77[p3] . (In Persian) 
  9. Norouzpour S. Effects of a powerful, resistance & balancing exercises on fixed balance in aged males 50-70 years old. [dissertation]. (Tehran): ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY Central Tehran Branch; 2012. 54p. (In Persian[p4] )
  10. Akbari Kamrani A A, Zamani Sani H, Fathi Rezaie Z, Farsi A, Aghdasi M T. Investigation of factor structure of Persian version of Functional Gait Assessment in Iranian elderly. IJAgeing 2010; 5(3): 0-0.
  11. Shamsipour-Dehkordy P, Aslankhani M, Shams A. Effects of physical, mental and mixed practices on the static and dynamic balance of aged people. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2011; 12 (4) :71-77. (In Persian)[p5] 
  12. Gregg EW, Pereira MA, Caspersen CJ. Physical activity falls and fractures among older adults: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. J Am Geriartr Soc 2000; 48(8): 883-93.
  13. Sadeghi H, Prince F, Zabjec KF, Allard P. Sagittal-Hip-Muscle Power During Walking in Old and Young Able-Bodied  Men. J Aging Phys Act 2001; 9: 172- 83.
  14. Sohbatiha M, Aslankhani M, Farsi A. The Effect of Aquatic and Land-based Exercises on Static and Dynamic Balance of Healthy Male Older People. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011; 6 (2) :0-0 (In Persian)[p6] 
  15. Wernick-Robinson M, Krebs DE, Giorgetti MM. Functional Reach; does it realy measure dynamic balance?. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80(3): 262-9.
  16. Judge JO, Lindsey C, Underwood M, Winsemiuse D. Balance improvements in older women: effect of exercise training. Phys Ther 1993; 73(4): 274- 5.
  17. Lord, S.R, Sherington, C., Menze, H.B. Falls in older people: risk factors and strategies for prevention. Cambridge UK: Kammbridge Univercity Press; 2001.
  18. Hinman MR. Comparison of Two Short-term Balance Training Program for Community- dewelling Older. J Geriar Phys Ther 2002; 25(3): 10-15.
  19. Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The Initial Effects of Low-Volume Strength Training on Balance in Untrained Older Men and Women. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 17(1): 121–8.
  20. Lord SR, Castell S, Corcoran J, Dayhew J, Matters B, Shan A, et al. The Effect of Group Exercise on Physical Functioning and Falls in Frail Older People Living in Retirement Villages: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51(12): 1685-92.
  21. Deslandes AC, Moraes H, Alves H, Pompeu FA, Silveira H, Mouta R, et al. Effect of aerobic training on EEG alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a 1-year follow-up study. Braz J Med Biol Res 2010; 43(6): 585-92.
  22. Sorosky S, Stilp S, Akuthota V. Yoga and pilates in the management of low back pain. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2007; 1(1): 39-47.
  23. Legters K. Fear of falling. Phys Ther. 2002; 82(3): 2672-4.
  24. Smith K, Smith E. Integrating Pilates-based core strengthening into older adult fitness programs implications for practice. Top Geriatr Rehab 2005; 21(1): 57-67.
  25. Irez GB, Ozdemir RA, Evin R, Irez SG, Korkusuz F. Integrating Pilates exercise into an exercise program for 65+ year-old women to reduce falls. J Sports Sci Med 2011; 10(1): 105-11.
  26. Vincent KR, Braith RW, Feldman RA, Magyari PM, Cutler RB, Persin SA, et al. Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50(6): 1100-7.
  29. Ciolac EG, Garcez-Leme LE, Greve JM. Resistance exercise intensity progression in older men. Int J Sports Med 2010; 31(6): 433-8.
  30. Fahlman, Mariane M. FACSM; Hall, Heather L. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:May 2009 - Volume 41 - Issue 5 - p 365doi: 10.1249/[p9] 
  31. Lovell DI, Cuneo R, Gass GC. The effect of strength training and short-term detraining on maximum force and the rate of force development of older men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 109(3): 429-35.
  32. Delshad M, Ebrahim Kh, Gholami M, Ghanbarian A. The Effect of Resistance Training on Prevention of Sarcopenia in Women Over 50. Sport Biosciences 2011; 3(8): 123-39. (Persian)
  33. Shafa T. Reliability and validity of Persian version of the physical activity readiness questionnaire in older people in Iran. [Dissertation].[p10]  Tehran. University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation. 2013
  34. Bogle Thorbahn LD, Newton RA. Use of the Berg Balance Test to Predict Falls in Elderly Persons. Phys Ther 1996; 76(6): 576-83.
  35. Jones CJ, Rikli RE, Beam WC. A 30-s chair-stand test as a measure of lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Res Q Exerc Sport 1999; 70(2): 113-9.
  36. Fahlman MM, McNevin N, Boardley D, Morgan A, Topp R. Effects of  Resistance Training on Functional Ability in Elderly Individuals. Am J Health Promot 2011; 25(4):237-43.
  37. Kloubec JA. Pilates for Improvement of Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, Balance, and Posture. J Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(3): 661-7.
  38. Rosendahl E. Fall prediction and high-intensity functional exercise programme to improve physical functions and to prevent falls among older people living in residential care facilities. Clin Rehabil 2006; 21: 130-41.
  39. Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC. Understanding Motor Development. 6th ed. Tehran: Elmva-Harekat; 2006. (In Persian)
  40. Godard MP, Whitman SA, Richmond SR. Effects of balance training on stability and neuromuscular drive in older women. Act Adap Aging 2004; 27(4): 59-73.
  41. Manini T, Marko M, VavArnam T, Cook S, Fernhall B, Burke J, et al. Efficacy of resistance and taskspecefic exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62(6): 616-23.
  42. De Bruin E, Murer K. Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people. Clin Rehabil 2007; 21(2): 112-21.
  43. Aradmehr M, Sagheeslami A, Ilbeigi S. The effect of balance training and pilates on static and functional balance of elderly men. KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ ). 2015; 18 (6) :571-577
  44. Zaghari S. Evaluation of Abilities of standing in men and women elderly. [Thesis]. (Tehran). Iran University of Medical Sciences. 2004. (Persian)
  45. Kamali A, mahdavinezhad R, Norouzi R. The effect of a Period of Selected Pilate’s Exercises on Range of motion and Balance of Elderly Women. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2014; 2(4): 11-22 (In Persian)[p11] 
  46. Sadeghi H, Norouzi HR, Karimi A, Montazer M. Functional training program effect on static and dynamic balance in male able-bodied elderly. Salmand Iran J Aging 2008; 3(8): 565-71. (Persian).