Evaluation of the Effects of Oral Vitamin-D for Pelvic Pain Reduction in Primary Dysmenorrhea

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health Promotion and Social Development Research Center, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.


Introduction:Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disorder characterized by painful uterine cramping before or during menstruation in the absence of any pelvic pathologic conditions. Finding a treatment without any side-effect for dysmenorrhea has always been a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on reduction of pelvic pain in primary dysmenorrhea.
Methods: This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted during 2012 and 2013 on 54 women suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. For case group (n=27), a single dose of 300,000 IU of  vitamin D was prescribed 5 days before the beginning of menstruation, for three consecutive cycles. For control group (n=27), placebo was prescribed. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were given to both groups if they had pain. Pain severity was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale for one month before the study and during 3 months of the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, t-test, Fried Man and kolmogorov-smirnov tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of age (p=0.704), level of vitamin D (p=0.271), family history of dysmenorrhea (p=0.54), using NSAIDs (p=0.72), educational status (p=0.28), and body mass index (p=0.097). The mean of pain severity before treatment was not significantly different between two groups (7.25 ± 1.70 in case group and 7.25 ± 1.70 in control group, p= 0.584). At first, pain severity was high in both groups, and then it decreased in the first months. In placebo group, pain severity did not decrease in the second and third months, but it increased. Though pain severity decreased in the second and third months in the group of Vitamin D. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D and pain severity in four stages (before and three stages after) (p=0.526, p=0.248, p=0.513, p=0.059).
Conclusion: A single dose of vitamin D reduced dysmenorrhea, and can be used beside NSAIDs.


  1. Dawood MY. Primary dysmenorrhea : advances in pathogenesis and management. Obstet Gynecol 2006 Aug;108(2):428-.14
  2. Proctor M, Farquhar C. Diagnosis and management of dysmenorrhoea . BMJ 2006 May;332(7550):1134-.8
  3. Vigano P , Lattuada D, Mangioni S, Ermellino L, Vignali M, Caporizzo E, et al. Cycling and early pregnant endometrium as a site of regulated expression of the vitamin D system . J Mol Endocrinol 2006 Jun;36(3):415.42
  4. Zehnder D, Bland R, Williams M C, McNinch RW, Howie AJ, Stewart PM, et al. Extrarenal expression of 25hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 Feb;86(2):888-94.
  5. Lassco A, Catalano A, Benvenga S. Improvement of primary dysmenorrhea caused by a single oral dose of vitamin D: results of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2012 Feb 27;172(4):366-7.
  6. Wong CL, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Proctor M. Oral contraceptive pill for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD002120.
  7. Marjoribanks J, Proctor M, Farquhar C, Derks RS. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD001751.
  8. Hashemipor S, Larijani B, Adibi H, Javadi E, Sedaghat M, Pajouhi M, et al . Vitamin D deficiency and causative factor in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health 2004 Aug 25;4:38.
  9. Dehghani Firouzabadi R, Aflatoonian A, Modarres S, Sekhavat L, Mohammad Taheri S. Therapeutic effects of calcium & vitamin D supplementation in women with PCOS. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2012 May;18(2):85-.8
  10. Bertone-Johnson ER, Chocano-Bedoya PO, Zagarins SE, Micka AE, Ronnenberg AG. Dietary vitamin D  intake,  25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and premenstrual syndrome in a college-aged population. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010 Jul;121(1-2):434-7.