Document Type : Original Article
Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health Promotion and Social Development Research Center, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
Introduction:Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disorder characterized by painful uterine cramping before or during menstruation in the absence of any pelvic pathologic conditions. Finding a treatment without any side-effect for dysmenorrhea has always been a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on reduction of pelvic pain in primary dysmenorrhea.
Methods: This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted during 2012 and 2013 on 54 women suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. For case group (n=27), a single dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D was prescribed 5 days before the beginning of menstruation, for three consecutive cycles. For control group (n=27), placebo was prescribed. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were given to both groups if they had pain. Pain severity was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale for one month before the study and during 3 months of the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, t-test, Fried Man and kolmogorov-smirnov tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of age (p=0.704), level of vitamin D (p=0.271), family history of dysmenorrhea (p=0.54), using NSAIDs (p=0.72), educational status (p=0.28), and body mass index (p=0.097). The mean of pain severity before treatment was not significantly different between two groups (7.25 ± 1.70 in case group and 7.25 ± 1.70 in control group, p= 0.584). At first, pain severity was high in both groups, and then it decreased in the first months. In placebo group, pain severity did not decrease in the second and third months, but it increased. Though pain severity decreased in the second and third months in the group of Vitamin D. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D and pain severity in four stages (before and three stages after) (p=0.526, p=0.248, p=0.513, p=0.059).
Conclusion: A single dose of vitamin D reduced dysmenorrhea, and can be used beside NSAIDs.