The relationship between serum vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes: A case-control study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Women's Health and Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

2 Student of Medicine, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

3 Instructor, Department of Anesthesia, Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.


Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Decreased vitamin D levels increase the risk of gestational diabetes up to 45%. The present study was performed aimed to compare the relationship between serum level of vitamin D with gestational diabetes in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes referred to the gynecology clinic in Jahrom.
Methods: This case-control study was performed in 2021 on 110 pregnant women referred to Jahrom gynecology clinic. GTT was performed with 4 blood samples for screening for gestational diabetes and measurement of HbA1C. Those with four or more abnormalities in the intravenous blood glucose test were identified as having gestational diabetes and were included in the case group, and those with normal GTT were matched with the case group and were placed in the control group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 21) and T-test, Mann-Whitney and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: There was no significant difference between women with gestational diabetes and pregnant women without gestational diabetes in terms of serum levels of vitamin D (P = 0.37). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of laboratory variables of Total.Ca, FBS and HbA1C (P <0.05).
Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference between pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes in serum levels of vitamin D, the level of vitamin D in women with gestational diabetes was lower than women without diabetes. Vitamin D administration can also improve variables that can increase the risk of pregnancy complications, including exacerbation of diabetes.


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