Relationship between level of vitamins and Hydatiform Mole in Women: A Systematic Review Study

Document Type : Review Article


1 PhD student of Reproductive Health, Mother and Child Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Instructor, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 PhD student of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

5 PhD student of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: Hydatidiform mole is one of the emergency risks in pregnancy that can threaten the life of women of childbearing age with risk of death. Various studies have reported different risk factors for this disease. One of these factors is nutritional deficiency, especially vitamin deficiencies, which can lead to this condition. Therefore, this study was performed with aim to systematic review of the relationship between the blood level of vitamins in women and hydatidiform mole.
Methods: In this systematic review study, for finding the related articles, the international databases such as: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase, Google Scholar and national databases such as: MagIran, SID, IranDoc and IranMedex were evaluated using the keywords of: "Hydatidiform Mole", "Gestational Trophoblastic Disease", "Molar Pregnancy" and "Vitamin" which were combined with the OR and AND Boolean operators without time limitation. Finally, two researchers independently reviewed the articles for assessment of the quality (by using NOS checklist) and data extraction.
Results: Finally, 10 articles were included with total sample size of 1134 women. The publication¢s year of papers was from 1988 to 2018 and all studies were case-control. The findings showed that level of vitamins A, D, E, C, B9 and B12 are associated with hydatidiform mole, so that decreasing of these vitamins leads to molar pregnancy. In most of the studies, there was decreased level of these vitamins in both complete and incomplete molar pregnancy.
Conclusion: Decreased level of vitamins A, D, E, C, B9 and B12 can increase the risk of molar pregnancy. Therefore, by examining and determining the nutritional deficiencies in women with history of molar pregnancy, we can evaluate the effect and administration of vitamin supplements on recurrence of hydatidiform mole can by designing clinical trials.


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