Frequency of deep vein thrombosis in women over 40 years old with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy referred to Tabriz chemotherapy clinics in 2018

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesia, School of Paramedical, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Introduction: Increasing age and receiving chemotherapy are among the risk factors for deep vein thrombosis that have not been studied so far in Iranian society. Therefore, this study was performed with aim to investigate the frequencyof deep vein thrombosis in women over 40 years with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy referred to Tabriz chemotherapy clinics in 2018.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 165 women in Tabriz chemotherapy clinics in 2018. Deep vein thrombosis was assessed by the criteria for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and those who were at high risk of developing deep vein thrombosis were examined by Doppler ultrasound. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 21) and Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. PResults: The mean of deep vein thrombosis was 13.69±2.20 that based on the available checklist, 19 patients (11.52%) were at high risk for this complication that after Doppler ultrasound analysis, deep vein thrombosis was confirmed in 17 patients (10.30%). The results of Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference between the number of chemotherapy sessions and developing deep vein thrombosis (p=0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in the present study was 10.30% in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, which was related to the number of chemotherapy sessions.


  1. Dyrstad SW, Yan Y, Fowler AM, Colditz GA. Breast cancer risk associated with benign breast disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015; 149(3):569-75.
  2. Rodgers KM, Udesky JO, Rudel RA, Brody JG. Environmental chemicals and breast cancer: an updated review of epidemiological literature informed by biological mechanisms. Environ Res 2018; 160:152-82.
  3. Smith SG, Sestak I, Forster A, Partridge A, Side L, Wolf M, et al. Factors affecting uptake and adherence to breast cancer chemoprevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2015; 27(4):575-90.
  4. Barnard ME, Boeke CE, Tamimi RM. Established breast cancer risk factors and risk of intrinsic tumor subtypes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1856(1):73-85.
  5. Vila J, Gandini S, Gentilini O. Overall survival according to type of surgery in young (≤40 years) early breast cancer patients: a systematic meta-analysis comparing breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy. Breast 2015; 24(3):175-81.
  6. Zeichner SB, Terawaki H, Gogineni K. A review of systemic treatment in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer 2016; 10:25-36.
  7. Waks AG, Winer EP. Breast cancer treatment: a review. JAMA 2019; 321(3):288-300.
  8. Ambroggi M, Biasini C, Del Giovane C, Fornari F, Cavanna L. Distance as a barrier to cancer diagnosis and treatment: review of the literature. Oncologist 2015; 20(12):1378-85.
  9. Raphael MJ, Biagi JJ, Kong W, Mates M, Booth CM, Mackillop WJ. The relationship between time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2016; 160(1):17-28.
  10. Petrelli F, Cabiddu M, Coinu A, Borgonovo K, Ghilardi M, Lonati V, et al. Adjuvant dose-dense chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015; 151(2):251-9.
  11. Bao T, Basal C, Seluzicki C, Li SQ, Seidman AD, Mao JJ. Long-term chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy among breast cancer survivors: prevalence, risk factors, and fall risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2016; 159(2):327-33.
  12. Tao JJ, Visvanathan K, Wolff AC. Long term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer. Breast 2015; 24:S149-53.
  13. Tippit D, Siegel E, Ochoa D, Pennisi A, Hill E, Merrill A, et al. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with breast cancer with chest versus arm central venous port catheters. Breast Cancer 2018; 12:1178223418771909.
  14. Kang J, Sun W, Li H, Ma E, Wang K, Chen W. Peripherally inserted central catheter-related vein thrombosis in breast cancer patients. J Vasc Access 2016; 17(1):67-71.
  15. Patrawalla P, Eisen LA, Shiloh A, Shah BJ, Savenkov O, Wise W, et al. Development and validation of an assessment tool for competency in critical care ultrasound. J Grad Med Educ 2015; 7(4):567-73.
  16. Hussain RH, Fadaee MM, Samadi S, Korkmandi M, Ali MS, Ghasempour S, Shamsaldini M. Evaluation of the effective risk factors on dvt appearance in surgery part patient in the university hospitals of university of medical sciences of kerman, in the year of 2014. J Iran Sco Anaesthesiol Intensive Care 2018; 91(2):152-8.
  17. Varshochi M, Haghdoost M, Mashrabi O. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a case report. Am J Infect Dis 2010; 6(3):61-5.
  18. Haghdoost M, Taghizadeh S, Montazer M, Poorshahverdi P, Ramouz A, Fakour S. Double strain probiotic effect on Helicobacter pylori infection treatment: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Caspian J Intern Med 2017; 8(3):165-71.
  19. Varshochi M, Haghdoost M. Evaluating the effect of booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine in low-and non-responders healthcare workers and the role of some host-related factors. Am J Immunol 2011; 7(2):24-8.
  20. Akbari Aghdam M, Soroush Barhaghi M, Aghazadeh M, Jafari F, Hagh MB, Haghdoost M, et al. Virulence genes in biofilm producer Enterococcus faecalis isolates from root canal infections. Cell Mol Biol 2017; 63(5):55-9.
  21. Owaysee Osquee H, Pourjafar H, Taghizadeh S, Haghdoost M, Ansari F. Laboratory features of 160 CCHF confirmed cases in Zabol of Iran: A 10-year study. J Infect 2017; 74(4):418-20.
  22. Agamohammdi D, Montazer M, Hoseini M, Haghdoost M, Farzin H. A comparison of continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine for pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures. Anesth Pain Med 2018;8(2):e60805.
  23. Naghipour B, Faridaalaee G, Shadvar K, Bilehjani E, Khabaz AH, Fakhari S. Effect of prophylaxis of magnesium sulfate for reduction of postcardiac surgery arrhythmia: Randomized clinical trial. Ann Card Anaesth 2016; 19(4):662-7.
  24. Fakhari S, Bavil FM, Bilehjani E, Abolhasani S, Mirinazhad M, Naghipour B. Prophylactic furosemide infusion decreasing early major postoperative renal dysfunction in on-pump adult cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Res Rep Urol 2017; 9:5-13.
  25. Atashkhoei S, Fakhari S, Pourfathi H, Bilehjani E, Garabaghi P, Asiaei A. Effect of oxytocin infusion on reducing the blood loss during abdominal myomectomy: a double‐blind randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2017; 124(2):292-8.
  26. Aw A, Carrier M, Koczerginski J, McDiarmid S, Tay J. Incidence and predictive factors of symptomatic thrombosis related to peripherally inserted central catheters in chemotherapy patients. Thromb Res 2012; 130(3):323-6.
  27. Gary T, Belaj K, Steidl K, Pichler M, Eisner F, Stöger H, et al. Asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis and superficial vein thrombosis in ambulatory cancer patients: impact on short-term survival. Br J Cancer 2012; 107(8):1244-8.
  28. Chopra V, Ratz D, Kuhn L, Lopus T, Lee A, Krein S. Peripherally inserted central catheter‐related deep vein thrombosis: contemporary patterns and predictors. J Thromb Haemost 2014; 12(6):847-54.
  29. Samare Fekri M, Khalily Zade M, Fatehi S. The association of deep vein thrombosis with cancer treatment modality: chemotherapy or surgery? Iran Red Crescent Med J2014; 16(9):e14722.