Relationship between some reproductive characteristics, Maternal Hb and Placental Weight

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Hazrate Fatemeh School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Nursing Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Instructor, Department of Midwifery, Kazeroon Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon, Iran.


Introduction: Placental weight is one of the key determinants of its health and adequacy which is affected by some maternal fertility and biochemical properties. Therefore, this study was performed with aim to evaluate the relationship between maternal fertility characteristics and some blood markers with placental weight.
Methods: This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 365 parturient women referred to Kazeroon Vali-E-Asr maternity in 2017. The individual and fertility characteristics of qualified women (maternal age, gestational age, maternal weight in early pregnancy, maternal height, parity, Hb & HCT level and placental weight) were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire, and the placentas were weighted by standard scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 21) and person correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. PResults The mean placental weight was 583±1.3 g, mean BMI was 25.1± 5.3 kg/m2, mean hemoglobin level was 12.75±.0.94 mg/dl and mean hematocrit level was 28.23± 2.92%. There was significant and positive relationship between maternal BMI, gestational age (P< 0.05), and placental weight. In addition, the multiple regression coefficients indicated that BMI and gestational age are positive predictors of placental weight (P < 0.001, β= 0.24, and β= 0.20, respectively) and explained an overall 10% of the variance in placental weight. However, the distribution of placental weight had no significant relationship with parity, maternal age, Hb and HCT levels.
Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between placental weight with maternal BMI and gestational age. Therefore, in order to protect the proper function of the placenta, proper cares for favorable maternal BMI and proper weight gain and taking caution about pregnancy termination is recommended.  


  1. Asgharnia M, Esmailpour N, Poorghorban M, Atrkar-Roshan Z. Placental weight and its association with maternal and neonatal characteristics. Acta Med Iran 2008; 46(6):467-72.
  2. Patimah S, Syauqi Y, Thaha AR. The correlation between placental weight and birth weight. Int Proc Chem Biol Environ Eng 2015; 86:10.
  3. Thame M, Osmond C, Bennett F, Wilks R, Forrester T. Fetal growth is directly related to maternal anthropometry and placental volume. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(6):894-900.
  4. Eteudo Albert N, Daniel Lawrence E, Igwe Chibueze C. Relationship between maternal bmi and placental weight in relation with foetal outcome amongst neonates in federal teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Int J Med Sci Clin Invent 2015; 2(8):1220-5.
  5. Belkacemi L, Nelson MD, Desai M, Ross MG. Maternal undernutrition influences placental-fetal development. Biol Reprod 2010; 83(3):325-31.
  6. Ahankari A, Leonardi-Bee J. Maternal hemoglobin and birth weight: systematic review and metaanalysis. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015; 4(4):435-45.
  7. Xiong X, Buekens P, Alxander S, Demianczuk N, Wollast E. Anemia during pregnancy and birth outcome: a meta-analysis. Am J Perinatol 2000; 17(3):137-46.
  8. Haider BA, Olofin I, Wang M, Spiegelman D, Ezzati M, Fawzi WW, et al. Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013; 346:f3443.
  9. Clapp JF 3rd, Kim H, Burciu B, Lopez B. Beginning regular exercise in early pregnancy: effect on fetoplacental growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183(6):1484-8.
  10. Huxley RR. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: its role in placental development. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95(5):779-82. 
  11. Macdonald EM, Natale R, Regnault TR, Koval JJ, Campbell MK. Obstetric conditions and the placental weight ratio. Placenta 2014; 35(8):582-6.
  12. Jones HN, Powell TL, Jansson T. Regulation of placental nutrient transport-a review. Placenta 2007; 28(8-9):763-74.
  13. Alwasel SH, Abotalib Z, Aljarallah JS, Osmond C, Alkharaz SM, et al. Changes in placental size during Ramadan. Placenta 2010; 31(7):607-10.
  14. Fowden AL, Forhead JA, Coan PM, Burton GJ. The placenta and intrauterine programming. Review Article. J Neuroendocrinol2008; 20(4):439-50.
  15. Robert DJ. Placental pathology, a survival guide. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2008, 132(4):641-51.
  16. Haavaldsen C, Samuelsen SO, Eskild A. The association of maternal age with placental weight: a population-based study of 536 954 pregnancies. BJOG 2011; 118(12):1470-6.
  17. Baptiste-Roberts K, Salafia CM, Nicholson WK, Duggan A, Wang NY, Brancati FL. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: the national collaborative perinatal project. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008; 8:44.
  18. Dzakpasu S, Fahey J, Kirby RS, Tough SC, Chalmers B, Heaman MI, et al. Contribution of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain to adverse neonatal outcomes: population attributable fractions for Canada. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015; 15:21.
  19. Roland MC, Friis CM, Godang K, Bollerslev J, Haugen G, Henriksen T. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex. PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e87303.
  20. Wallace JM, Horgan GW, Bhattacharya S. Placental weight and efficiency in relation to maternal body mass index and the risk of pregnancy complications in women delivering singleton babies. Placenta 2012; 33(8):611-8.
  21. Esmaili H, Shah Farhat A, Mirzai Najmabadi K, Dadgar S, Karimi A, Khojasteh Gelayami M. The relationship between maternal body mass index at the beginning of pregnancy and infants' birth weight and pregnancy outcomes. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2014; 16(85):1-10.
  22. Hindmarsh PC, Rodeck CH, Jackson MR, Jackson MR, Kingdom JC.Effect of early maternal iron stores on placental weight and structure. Lancet 2000; 356(9231):719-23.
  23. Mosha D, Chilongola J, Ndeserua R, Mwingira F, Genton B. Effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy on placental malaria, maternal anaemia and birthweight in areas with high and low malaria transmission intensity in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 2014; 19(9):1048-56.
  24. Alizadeh L, Raoofi A, Salehi L, Ramzi M. Impact of maternal hemoglobin concentration on fetal outcomes in adolescent pregnant women. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014; 16(8):e19670.
  25. Saberi M, Rahmani S. The relationship between anemia during pregnancy and birth weight. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2015; 18(142):6-10. (Persian).