Detection and isolation of Mycoplasma genitallium in evaporated urine from pregnant women by PCR method

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate professor, Department of Lab Medical Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 M.Sc. of Bacteriology, Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: Mycoplasma is one of the most important bacterial causes of genital infections in women and men, followed by premature birth and even abortion in pregnant women. The present study was performed aimed to detect and isolate Mycoplasma genitallium in some pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy.
Methods: In this cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study which was performed in 2020-2021, evaporated urine sampling was collected from 66 pregnant women who were referred to the health center for screening tests on first trimester of pregnancy (between 11-14 weeks). In this way, these women did not urinate for at least 2 hours and then urine samples were collected in sterile containers. Urine sediment DNA was extracted and the genome of Mycoplasma was detected by PCR method. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20) and Independent T-test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Mycoplasma genitallium genome was isolated from 17.65 % of evaporated urine sediment samples by PCR method.
Conclusion: For isolation and detection of Mycoplasma in pregnant women, sampling of vaginal or cervix discharge have some dangers, thus evaporated urine sampling is a safer and more reliable method.


  1. Doyle RM, Alber DG, Jones HE, Harris K, Fitzgerald F, Peebles D, et al. Term and preterm labour are associated with distinct microbial community structures in placental membranes which are independent of mode of delivery. Placenta 2014; 35(12):1099-101.
  2. Walsh MS, Hope E, Isaia L, Righarts A, Niupulusu T, Temese SV, et al. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Samoan women aged 18 to 29 and assessment of possible risk factors: a community-based study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2015; 109(4):245-51.
  3. Depuydt CE, Verstraete L, Berth M, Beert J, Bogers JP, Salembier G, et al. Human papillomavirus positivity in women undergoing intrauterine insemination has a negative effect on pregnancy rates. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation 2016; 81(1):41-6.
  4. Kumar S, Garg IB, Sethi GR. Serological and molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2019; 95(1):5-9.
  5. Jalilvand S, Shoja Z, Nourijelyani K, Tohidi HR, Hamkar R. Meta‐analysis of type‐specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination. Journal of medical virology 2015; 87(2):287-95.
  6. Tamim H, Finan RR, Sharida HE, Rashid M, Almawi WY. Cervicovaginal coinfections with human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 2002; 43(4):277-81.
  7. López-Corbeto E, González V, Lugo R, Rivaya B, Casabona J, Matas L, et al. Pooling of urine samples for molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium as a screening strategy among young adults in Catalonia. Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.) 2020; 38(2):65-71.
  8. Donders GG, Ruban K, Bellen G, Petricevic L. Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma infection in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen. Journal of perinatal medicine 2017; 45(5):505-15.
  9. Jensen JS, BjÖrnelius E, Dohn B, Lidbrink P. Comparison of first void urine and urogenital swab specimens for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sexually transmitted diseases 2004: 499-507.
  10. Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW. The role of infection in miscarriage. Human reproduction update 2016; 22(1):116-33.
  11. Ramezani AA, Mohraz M, Mafakheri M, Nazgouei F. Prevalence of Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Patients with Abortion Reffered to a Private Infectious Office (1381). Iranian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine 2004; 9(24):27-32.
  12. Vosooghi S, Kheirkhah B, Karimi Nik A, Reza Mirshekari T. A Review of the Role of Mycoplasma Infections in Humans Infertility. New Cellular & Molecular Biotechnology Journal 2012; 2(8):9-20.
  13. Short VL, Jensen JS, Nelson DB, Murray PJ, Ness RB, Haggerty CL. Mycoplasma genitalium among young, urban pregnant women. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology 2010; 2010.
  14. Rahimkhani M, Mordadi A, Varmazyar S, Tavakoli A. Evaluation of urinary interleukin-8 levels in patients with spinal cord injury. Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery 2015; 9(2): 144–149.
  15. Besharati R, Lashkardoost H, Hamedi A, Mehrabi M, Gholami S. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with ELISA method and its related factors in women with a history of abortion referred to Bental-Hoda Hospital. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2020; 23(8):30-36.
  16. Rahimkhani M, Saberian M, Mordadi A, Varmazyar S, Tavakoli A. Urinary tract infection with Candida glabrata in a patient with spinal cord injury. Acta Medica Iranica 2015; 53(8): 516–517.