سایتومگالوویروس و نقش آن در ایجاد عفونت مادرزادی: مقاله مروری- روایتی

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه ویروس‌شناسی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه ویروس‌شناسی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه ویروس‌شناسی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه ویروس‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پزشکی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

5 دانشجوی دکترای ویروس‌شناسی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: سایتومگالوویروس انسانی، عامل مهم عفونت مادرزادی در سراسر دنیا است. شیوع سرمی این ویروس در مناطق آسیایی در مقایسه با جوامع اروپایی بیشتر است. زنان باردار بسته به نوع عفونت (اولیه یا غیراولیه) می­توانند ویروس را به جنین خود منتقل کنند. عفونت مادرزادی سایتومگالوویروس به‌عنوان عامل کم‌شنوایی حسی- عصبی در کودکان می­باشد. با توجه به اهمیت HCMV، مطالعه مروری - روایتی حاضر با هدف تعیین و تبیین نقش این ویروس در عفونت مادرزادی انجام شد.
روش‌کار: در این مطالعه مروری روایتی جهت یافتن مقالات مرتبط، بانک‌های اطلاعاتی معتبر انگلیسی و فارسی شامل PubMed، Google Scholar و Magiranدر بازه زمانی 2019-2002 جستجو شدند. در این مطالعه از کلمات کلیدی سایتومگالوویروس، عفونت مادرزادی سایتومگالوویروس، تشخیص و شیوع و معادل انگلیسی آنها Cytomegalovirus، Congenital cytomegalovirus infection، Diagnosis، Prevalence به‌صورت ترکیبی استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: کشور­های در حال توسعه بروز عفونت مادرزادی با سایتومگالوویروس را بین 14-6% و کشورهای پیشرفته مانند اروپای غربی، ایالات متحده، کانادا و استرالیا نرخ بروز را 7/0-5/0% تخمین زده‌اند. در حالی که عفونت سایتومگالوویروس می­تواند یکی از دلایل قابل توجه ناشنوایی و ناتوانی­های جسمی در کودکان باشد، همچنان آگاهی در بین عموم و برخی پزشکان در این خصوص محدود می­باشد. در چند کشور اروپایی برای زنان باردار به‌طور معمول غربالگری عفونت سایتومگالوویروس انجام می­شود، اما در حال حاضر این غربالگری در ایران انجام نمی‌شود.
نتیجه‌گیری: مطالعات در جوامع مختلف اهمیت عفونت مادرزادی سایتومگالوویروس و عوارض طولانی‌مدت این عفونت را در نوزادان نشان می­دهند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cytomegalovirus and its role in congenital infection: A narrative-review study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Negar Mirsalehi 1
  • Talat Mokhtari-Azad 2
  • Jila Yavarian 3
  • Soamyeh Shatizadeh Malekshahi 4
  • Parastoo Hosseini 5
  • Nazanin-Zahra Shafiei-Jandaghi 3
1 M.Sc. student of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate professor, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant professor, Department of Virology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
5 PhD student of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of congenital infection worldwide. HCMV seroprevalence is higher in Asian regions than in European societies. Pregnant women can transmit the virus to their fetuses depending on the type of infection (primary or non-primary). Congenital HCMV infection is the leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children. Given the importance of HCMV, this narrative-review study was performed with aim to determine the role of HCMV in congenital infection.
Methods: In this narrative-review study, to find the related articles, the English and Persian databases including Google Scholar, PubMed and Magiran were searched from 2002 to 2019. The keywords of cytomegalovirus, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, diagnosis and prevalence both in Persian and English and also their combination used.
Results: Developing countries estimated that the incidence of HCMV congenital infection is 6%-14%. While in developed countries such as Western Europe, United States, Canada and Australia, the incidence rate is 0.5-0.7%. Although HCMV infection is a significant cause of hearing loss and disability in children, there is still little awareness among general population and some physicians in this field. Several European countries routinely screen the pregnant women for HCMV but this screening is not currently performed in Iran.  
Conclusion: The studies in different societies highlighted the importance of congenital HCMV infection and its long-term complications in infants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Congenital Infection
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Prevalence
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