The Evaluation of the Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Brassica oleracea (Red Cabbage) on Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction in Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Introduction: Brassica vegetables belong to Cruciferous family, and include diverse types of cabbage (green, red, etc.), cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale. Several studies have shown that consumption of these vegetables can lower incidence rate of cardiovascular and cancer diseases. One of these vegetables is Brassica oleracea. Studies suggested that red cabbage contains beneficial compounds which play a significant role in treatment of different disease such as cancer. This study evaluated cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Brassica oleracea on cell line MCF-7.
Methods: The in-vitro study was carried out on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) at the end of the year 2014 in Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants. Cells were cultivated in DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. Then, the cells were incubated with different concentrations of extracts. Cell viability was assessed by dint of MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected using propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak).
Results: RC[S1]  inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Following 24 hours, extract undermined cell viability at dose of 2000 µg/ml (P<0.05), after 48 hours increased cell death at doses of 1000 (P<0.05), 1500 (P<0.05) and 2000 (P<0.01). After 72h, rate of cell death increased at doses of 500 (P<0.05), 1000 (P<0.01), 1500 (P<0.01) and 2000 (P<0.001). Also, the extract induced apoptosis at doses of 1000 (P<0.05), 1500 (P<0.01) and 2000 (P<0.001). Further, the extract did not have any cytotoxicity effect on normal cells after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The IC50 was 2685 µg/ml.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that red cabbage accelerated cell death in MCF-7 cells via apoptosis induction. Therefore, red cabbage can be considered an effective treatment for breast cancer.


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