مقایسه تأثیر رایحه بهارنارنج و مریم گلی بر درد پس از سزارین

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مامایی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکترای آسیب و بلایای طبیعی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکترای بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: تسکین درد پس از سزارین به طور مؤثر و بی‌خطر که با توانایی مادر برای مراقبت از نوزادش اختلال ایجاد نکند ضروری است. درد پس از سزارین با کاهش توانایی مقاومت در برابر عفونت، افزایش میزان استفاده از مسکن‌ها، تأخیر در بهبودی زخم و ... همراه است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف مقایسه تأثیر رایحه بهارنارنج و مریم گلی بر درد پس از سزارین انجام شد.
روش‌‌کار: این مطالعه کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی سه گروهه در سال 1393 بر روی 120 زن باردار که جهت سزارین به بیمارستان معتضدی کرمانشاه مراجعه کرده بودند، انجام شد. در دو گروه مداخله بلافاصله بعد از شروع درد، 4، 8 و 12 ساعت پس از آن، آروماتراپی با 3 قطره از اسانس انجام شد و در گروه کنترل آروماتراپی با نرمال سالین به روش مشابه انجام شد. هر سه گروه از نظر میزان دریافت مسکن یکسان بودند. شدت درد با استفاده از مقیاس درجه‌بندی عددی قبل از مداخله و نیم ساعت بعد از هر چهار مداخله ارزیابی شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 18) و آزمون­های آنالیز واریانس، کروسکال والیس، کای دو، فریدمن و من ویتنی انجام شد. میزان p کمتر از 05/0 معنی‌دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: میانگین درد قبل از مداخله در سه گروه اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت (15/0=p). پس از مداخله، در گروه مداخله با بهارنارنج و مریم گلی میانگین درد در مرحله اول، دوم، سوم و چهارم مداخله در مقایسه با گروه کنترل کاهش معنی‌داری یافت (001/0p<). همچنین در هر چهار مرحله مداخله میانگین شدت درد بین گروه رایحه مریم گلی و بهارنارنج اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری وجود نداشت (05/0<p) و هر دو رایحه تأثیر یکسانی بر کاهش درد پس از سزارین داشتند.
نتیجه‌گیری: بین رایحه بهارنارنج و رایحه مریم گلی در کاهش درد بعد از عمل جراحی سزارین تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد، بنابراین استفاده از هر دو رایحه به عنوان تکنیک ساده، غیرتهاجمی و ارزان جهت کاهش درد بعد از سزارین توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the effect of Citrus arantium and Salvia officinalis aroma on post-cesarean section pain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Forouzan Sharifipour 1
  • Mandana Mirmohammad Ali 2
  • Mozhgan Hashemzadeh 3
1 M.Sc. in Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 PhD student of Damage and Natural Disasters, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD student of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Post-cesarean pain relief in an effective way without danger so that not to disturb mother’s ability to take care of her child is required. Post-cesarean pain is associated with reduced resistance against infections, increased use of analgesics and delayed wound healing. This study was performed with aim to compare the effect of Citrus arantium and Salvia officinalis aroma on post-cesarean section pain.
Methods: This three-group randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 pregnant women who had referred to Kermanshah Motazedi Hospital for cesarean in 2014. Aromatherapy with 3 drops of essence was fulfilled on two intervention groups immediately after the onset of pain, 4, 8 and 12 hours after it. Aromatherapy using normal saline was fulfilled on the control group in the same way. Severity of pain was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale before and half an hour after each four interventions. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 18) and Chi-square, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Mann Whitney tests. PResults: Mean of pain severity before the intervention was not significantly different between the three groups (P=0.15). After the intervention, mean of pain in the intervention groups of Citrus arantium and Salvia officinalis was significantly reduced in the first, second, third and fourth stage of intervention compared with control group (P<0.001). Also, in each four stage of the intervention, mean of pain severity was not significantly different between Citrus arantium aroma and Salvia officinalis aroma groups and both had similar effects on relief of post-cesarean section pain.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference between Citrus arantium aroma and Salvia officinalis aroma groups in reducing post-cesarean section pain, therefore, the use of both aromas is recommended as simple, noninvasive and inexpensive technique to reduce post-cesarean pain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aroma
  • Cesarean section
  • Citrus aurantium
  • Pain
  • Salvia officinalis
  1. Baricevic D, Sosa S, Della Loggia R, TubaroA, SimonovskaB, KrasnaA, et al. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75(2):125–32.
  2. Gibbons L, Belizan JM, Lauer JA, Betran AP, Meriald M, Althabe F. The global numbers and cost of additionally needed and unnecessary cesarean section performed per year: overuse as a barrier to universal coverage. World Health Rep 2011; 30:1-31.
  3. Latifi S, Rabiee OL, Saifi S. The effect of hand and foot massage on on post-cesarean section. Anesthesiol Pain Med J 2012; 2(7):102-7. (Persian).
  4. Shahoei R, Rostami F, Khosravi F, Ranayi F, Hasheminasab L, Hesami K, et al. Mothers lived experience of choice of cesarean delivery. A phenomenology study. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2014; 17(104):1-10. (Persian).
  5. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Rouse DJ, Spong CY. Williams obstetrics. 23rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010. P. 544-64.
  6. Laluei A, Kashanizadeh N, Teymouri M. The influence of academic educations on choosing preferable delivery method in obstetrics medical team: investigating their viewpoints. Iran J Med Educ 2009; 9(1):69-78.
  7. Razmjoo N, Hafizi LL, Yousefi F, Esmaeili H, Azizi H, Lotfalizade M. Effect of foot reflexology on pain and anxiety in women following elective cesarean section. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2012; 15(1):9-17. (Persian).
  8. Hurley RW. Acute postoperative pain. In: Miller RD, Eriksson LI, Fleisher LA, Wiener-Kronish JP, Young WL, editors. Miller’s anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2010. P. 2757-81.
  9. Gupta A, Kaur K, Sharma S, Goyal S, Arora S, Murthy RS. Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010; 1(2):97-108.
  10. Nikandish R, Sahm AM, Khademi S. Effect of exposure to music on postoperative pain and anxiety after cesarean section under general anesthesia: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Iran Soc Anesthesiol Inten Care 2006; 28(53):50-9. (Persian).
  11. Hadi N, Hanid AA. Lavender essence for post-cesarian pain. Pak J Biol Sci 2011; 14(11):664-7.
  12. Power I. Recent advances in postoperative pain therapy. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95(1):43-51.
  13. Marcus SM. Depression during pregnancy. Rates, risks and consequences--Motherisk Update 2008. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 16)1):e15-22.
  14. Khoshtarash M, Ghanbari A, Yegane MR, Kazemnejhad E, Rezasoltani P. Effects of foot reflexology on pain and physiological parameters after cesarean section. Koomesh 2012; 14(1):109-16. (Persian).
  15. Olapour A, Behaeen K, Akhondzadeh R, Soltani F, Al Sadat Razavi F, Bekhradi R. The effect of inhalation of aromatherapy blend containing lavender essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain. Anesth Pain Med 2013; 3(1):203-7.
  16. Kim YJ, Lee M, Yang Y, Hur MH. Self-aromatherapy massage of the abdomen for the reduction of menstrual pain and anxiety during menstruation in nurses: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Integrat Med 2011; 3(3):e165–8.
  17. Cho MY, Min ES, Hur MH, Lee MS. Effects of aromatherapy on the anxiety, vital signs, and sleep quality of percutaneous coronary intervention patients in intensive care units. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:381381.
  18. Wolfgang S, Steflitsch M. Clinical aromatherapy. J Men Health 2008; 5(1):74-85.
  19. Mahmoodi B. Familiar with herbal and aromatic plant essences and their healing effects. 1st ed. Tehran: Noore Danesh Publishing; 2002. (Persian).
  20. Eidi A. Antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract of salvia aethiopis in NMRI mice. Armaghane Danesh 2014; 19(1):24-35. (Persian).
  21. Abrosh Z, Rezai M, Ashrafi F. Effect of antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis essence. J Med Aromatic Plants 2004; 20(4):457-68.
  22. LM Lopes C, Gonçalves e Sá C, de Almeida AA, da Costa JP, Marques TH, Feitosa CM, et al. Sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Citrus limon (Burn) essential oil in mice. Pharmazie 2011; 66(8):623-7.
  23. Chan YY, Li CH, Shen YC, Wu TS. Anti-inflammatory principles from the stem and root barks of citrus medica. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2010; 58(1):61-5.
  24. Namazi M, Aliakbari SA, Mojab F, Talebi A, Alavi Majd H, Jannesari S. Investigating the effect of citrus aurantium aroma on severity of labor anxiety during active phase of labor. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2014; 17(111):12-9. (Persian).
  25. Eriksen M. Aromatherapy for Childbearing. California: Ronnie Falcao, LM MS CPM; 1994.
  26. Asongalem EA, Foyet HS, Ngogang J, Folefoc GN, Dimbo T, Kamtchouing P. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of Erigeron floribundus. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 91(2-3):301–8.
  27. Kaviani M, Maghbool S, Azima S, Tabaei M. The effect of aromatherapy with salvia officinalis on the severity of labor pain in nulliparous women. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Facul 2014; 12(2):79-85. (Persian).
  28. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, Potsch G, Deecke L. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behav 2000; 71(1-2):83-6.
  29. Mahmoodi M, Shamsi Meimandi M, Foroumadi AR, Raftari S, Asadi Shekari M. Antidepressant effect of sour orange flowers extract on lipopolysaccharide-i. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2005; 4(12):244-51.
  30. Delaram M, Dadkhah N. Comparing the effects of lidocaine cream and mefenamic acid on post episiotomy pain. Iran J Obestet Gynecol Infertil 2014; 17(96):6-11. (Persian).
  31. Han SH, Hur MH, Buckle J, Choi J, Lee MS. Effect of aromatherapy on symptums of dysmenorrheal in college students: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(6):535-41.
  32. Burns E, Zobbi V, Panzeri D, Oskrochi R, Regalia A. Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomized controlled trial. BJOG 2007; 114(7):838-44.
  33. Sharifipour F, Bakhteh A, Mirmohammad Ali M. Effect of citrus aurantium aroma on post-cesarean section anxiety. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2015; 18(169-170):12-20. (Persian).
  34. Kalvandi R, Alimohammadi S, Pashmakian Z, Rajabi M. The effects of medicinal plants of melissa officinalis and salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21(2):105-11. (Persian).
  35. Banaiyan G, Rasti Boroujeni A, Shirmardi M. Comparison of the effect of Citrus aurantium and diazepam on preoperative anxiety. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2009; 10(4):13-8. (Persian).
Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. J Midwifery Womens Health 2006; 51(2):e21-7.