مروری بر جنبه‌های حقوقی، قانونی، اخلاقی و فقهی رحم جایگزین در ایران با تأکید بر جنبه مشاوره‌ای آن

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت مبتنی بر شواهد، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: یکی از شیوه‌های کمک به زوجین نابارور، استفاده از روش‌های کمک باروری است. در فرآیند درمان ناباروری به روش رحم جایگزین نیاز به مشارکت فرد سوم پیامدهای ویژه قانونی - حقوقی، فقهی و اخلاقی را در پی خواهد داشت. مطالعه مروری حاضر با هدف بررسی مطالعات صورت گرفته پیرامون جنبه‌های قانونی - حقوقی، فقهی و اخلاقی رحم جایگزین در ایران با تأکید بر جنبه مشاوره انجام شد.
روش‌کار: مطالعه مروری حاضر حاصل مرور شواهد منتشر شده پیرامون جنبه‌های مذکور رحم اجاره‌ای توسط نویسندگان ایرانی در فاصله سال‌های 2006 تا 2016 در پایگاه‌های فارسیIran Medex ، SID و انگلیسی CINAHL، Google Scholar و PubMed می‌باشد. برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات ابتدا مقالاتی که در عنوان و یا متن دارای یکی از کلمات "رحم اجاره‌ای"، "مادر جایگزین"، "بارداری با مشارکت شخص ثالث"، "ناباروری"، "قانون"، "حقوق"، "فقه" و "اخلاق" بودند به تنهایی یا در ترکیب با هم به‌صورت فارسی و انگلیسی معادل جستجو شدند. از بین 706 مقاله، 42 مقاله حائز شرایط پژوهش بود.
یافته‌ها: در قانون ایران جنبه‌های مختلف رحم جایگزین روشن نیست. عدم پذیرش رحم جایگزین از سوی اکثر علمای اهل سنت و اختلاف نظر علمای شیعه وجود دارد. وجود مسائل قانونی مانند ارث و نیز ابعاد اخلاقی احتمالی از جمله به خطر افتادن جان مادر حامل بر ضرورت مشاوره‌های مستمر و جامع بیش از پیش می‌افزاید.
نتیجه‌گیری: تدوین راهنمای مشاوره‌ای جامع و در دسترس برای پاسخگویی به سؤالات طبی، قانونی و مذهبی زوجین داوطلب، قبل از انتخاب این روش درمانی ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A review of human rights, legal, ethical and religious aspects of Surrogacy in Iran with an emphasis on its counseling issues

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Jahani Shourab 1
  • Robab Latifnejad Roudsari 2
1 PhD student of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Reproductive Health, Evidence-Based Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Assisted reproductive technique is one of the methods to help the infertile couples. Need to the participation of a third person in the process of infertility treatment by surrogacy will have various human rights, legal, religious and ethical aspects. This review article was performed with aim to evaluate the studies about the human rights, legal, ethical, and religious aspects of surrogacy in Iran with an emphasis on counseling issues.
Methods: This study reviews the findings of published papers regarding different aspects of surrogacy in Iran between 2006 and 2016 in Persian databases of SID and Iran Medex and Medline, and English databases of Pub Med, CINAHL, Google Scholar.  Data were collected using the key words of " surrogacy ", "surrogate mother", " Third party reproduction ", "infertility", "law ","religion " and, " ethics" alone or in combination of these words. Among 706 articles, 42 articles eligible for the study were selected. 
Results: In Iranian law, various aspects of surrogacy is not clear. Surrogacy is not accepted by the majority Sunni scholars and there is disagreement between Shia scholars. Due to legal issues such as inheritance and possible ethical dimensions including the risk for surrogate mother increase the need for continuous and comprehensive counseling.
Conclusion: Collecting comprehensive and accessible counseling guideline is essential to answer the medical, legal and religious questions of candidate couples before choosing this treatment method.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethics
  • Human rights
  • Religion and Counseling
  • Surrogacy
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