آثار روانی - اجتماعی ناباروری مردانه در زنان ایرانی: یک مطالعه کیفی

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه آمار زیستی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم بهداشتی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه بهداشت باروری، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت مبتنی بر شواهد، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه مشاوره خانواده، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

5 مربی گروه آموزشی پرستاری، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت مبتنی بر شواهد، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

6 استادیار گروه زنان و مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات سلامت زنان، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: علی رغم اینکه زنان و مردان به یک میزان علت ناباروری می‌باشند، با این حال به دلیل تعصبات اجتماعی، ناباروری یک مشکل زنانه تلقی می‌شود و به همین دلیل نیز حتی در ناباروری با عامل مردانه، معمولاً زنان با مسائل و مشکلات خانوادگی و اجتماعی بیشتری روبرو می‌باشند و بار اصلی ناباروری را به دوش می‌کشند، بنابراین شناخت مسائل و مشکلات آنان در این حوزه از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است و می‌تواند پیامدهای اجتماعی این پدیده را بر روی زنان مشخص کند، لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف تبیین آثار روانی - اجتماعی ناباروری مردانه در زنان ایرانی انجام شد.
روش کار: این مطالعه با رویکرد کیفی و بر اساس تحلیل محتوایی مرسوم انجام شد. داده‌ها با انجام 30 مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته عمیق انفرادی جمع‌آوری شد. مشارکت‌کنندگان با حداکثر تنوع از طریق نمونه‌گیری مبتنی بر هدف تا رسیدن به اشباع اطلاعات از بین زنانی که همسران آنها نابارور بودند انتخاب شدند. تمام مصاحبه‌ها ضبط و کلمه به کلمه تایپ گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم افزار MAXqda و روش تحلیل محتوایی صورت گرفت.
یافته‌ها: تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها منجر به پدیدار شدن یک طبقه اصلی "درک تنش‌های مربوط به خانواده و اجتماع" و 3 زیر طبقه "رفتارهای آزاردهنده خانواده و اطرافیان (شامل زیر زیرطبقات "تجسس و دخالت"، "دریافت برچسب و سرزنش"، "طرد شدن"، "مواجهه با باورهای نادرست خانواده و اطرافیان" و "احساس تبعیض رفتاری)"، "حضور در جمعیت های خاص" و "احساس فقدان حمایت اجتماعی" شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: زنانی که همسرانشان نابارور است، تنش‌های بسیاری را در ارتباطات اجتماعی خود تجربه می‌کنند. آنچه در این میان جای تأمل دارد این است که در ناباروری با عامل مردانه، مسئولیت ناباروری بر عهده زن گذاشته می‌شود و بچه‌دار نشدن او باعث بروز رفتارها و پندارهای منفی از طرف خانواده و جامعه می‌گردد که می‌تواند پیامدهای ناگواری برای زنان داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Psycho - social effects of male infertility in Iranian women: a qualitative study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Zahra Karimi 1
  • Ali Taghipour 2
  • Robab Latifnejad Roudsari 3
  • Seyed Ali Kimiaee 4
  • Seyed Reza Mazloum 5
  • Maliheh Amirian 6
1 PhD Student of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Health Sciences Research Center, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Reproductive Health, Evidence-Based Care Research Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Department of Family Counseling, School of Education Sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
5 Instructor, Department of Nursing Education, Evidence-Based Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
6 Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Despite the fact that women and men are equally the cause of infertility, however, due to social prejudices, infertility is considered a female problem and that is why even in male factor infertility, women usually face with more social and family problems and bear the main burden of infertility. Therefore, recognizing their issues in this field would be of the utmost importance and may determine the social consequences of this phenomenon for women; so, this study was performed with aim to determine the psycho-social effects of male infertility in Iranian women.
Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using conventional content analysis. Data collection was conducted using 30 individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling until reaching to information … among the women who their husbands were infertile. All interviews were recorded and typed word by word. Data were analyzed using MAXqda software and conventional content analysis.
Results: Data analysis emerged one main category: "Perceived family and community stresses" and 3 sub-categories of "Abusive behavior of family and others" (including subcategories of "Spying and interference", "Reception label and blame", "being rejected", "facing with misunderstandings of family and others" and  "The sense of discrimination"), "The presence in specific populations" and "feeling of lack of social support.
Conclusion: The women whose husbands are infertile experience much tension in their social communications. What is more thinkable in this issue is that in male factor infertility, the woman is responsible for infertility and her childlessness causes negative behaviors and beliefs from the family and society which can have adverse consequences for women.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content Analysis
  • Infertility
  • Male Infertility
  • Psycho – social
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