نگاهی به مطالعات یائسگی در گذر زمان: از رویکرد زیست پزشکی تا رویکردهای جامع نگر

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مامایی، مرکز تحقیقات مراقبت مبتنی بر شواهد، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استادیار جامعه شناسی، پژوهشکده گردشگری جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: مطالعات انجام شده در زمینه یائسگی در طول زمان از نظر رویکردها و دیدگاه های فکری محققان بسیار متفاوت بوده اند. آشنایی با رویکردهای گوناگون تحقیقاتی می تواند در طراحی برنامه های مراقبتی مبتنی بر شواهد کمک کننده باشد، لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی سیر تحول در رویکردهای تحقیقاتی در موضوعات مرتبط با یائسگی انجام شد.
روش کار: در این مطالعه مروری 60 مقاله مرتبط با یائسگی تا 12 اردیبهشت ماه 1394 از بانک های اطلاعاتی Science Direct، Scopus، PubMed، Google Scholar،  Magiranو SID با کلید واژه های "یائسگی"، "دوران گذر"، "یائسه"، "رویکرد زیست پزشکی"، "رویکرد روانی- اجتماعی" و "رویکرد طبیعت گرایانه" جستجو شدند. این مقالات از نظر رویکرد زیربنایی تحقیق بررسی و بر اساس تابعیت از سه رویکرد زیست پزشکی، روانی- اجتماعی و طبیعت گرایانه در جداول مقایسه ای تنظیم و مورد قیاس موضوعی قرار گرفتند.
یافته ها: رویکرد زیست پزشکی یائسگی را معادل با شرایط کاهش هورمون استروژن و بیماری دانسته و به دنبال درمان آن است. رویکرد روانی- اجتماعی به دنبال تفسیرهای دیگری به جز کاهش استروژن نظیر سندرم آشیانه خالی برای توضیح علائم یائسگی می باشد و رویکرد طبیعت گرایانه به دنبال کشف تجربیات، احساسات و نیازهای عمیق زنان از زبان خودشان هستند.
نتیجه گیری: آشنایی با هر سه رویکرد مطالعاتی و استفاده از نتایج آنها با ایجاد یک نگاه جامع نگر به یائسگی می تواند راهنمای سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان در جهت طراحی مداخلات کل نگر و تحقق اهداف پزشکی مبتنی بر شواهد در حیطه یائسگی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Menopause research studies through passage of time: Shifting from biomedical to holistic approaches

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narjes Bahri 1
  • Robab Latifnejad Roudsari 2
  • Mozhgan Azimi Hashemi 3
1 PhD Student of Reproductive Health, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associated Professor, Department of Midwifery, Evidence Based Caring Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Sociology, khorasan razavi ACECR Institute for Tourism Research, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Studies performed related to menopause through passage of time have been very different in terms of approaches and theoretical perspectives of research. Getting familiarize with these various research could be useful for planning evidence based care programs. This review was conducted with aim to examine the evolution process in different research approaches about the issues related to menopause.
Methods: In this review article, 60 related articles related to menopause were searched from the databases including Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Magiran and SID until 2 May 2015 using keywords of “menopause”, “transition period”, “post-menopause”, “bio-medical paradigm”, “psycho-social approach”, and ”naturalistic paradigm”. These articles were examined closely in terms of their adopted research approach and were arranged and then compared based on allegiance with three biomedical, psycho-social or naturalistic paradigm in comparative tables.
Results: Bio-medical approach see menopause as the decrease in the estrogen level and disease and try to treat it. Psycho-social approach seek to find other interpretation than decreased level of estrogen such as the empty nest syndrome to explain the menopause. Naturalistic perspective tries to discover women’s perceptions, experiences and feelings using their own words.
Conclusions: Recognition of three research paradigms and using their results could provide a holistic perspective, which could be useful for health policy makers in planning comprehensive interventions and to achieve the goals of evidence-based practice in phase of menopause.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomedical paradigm
  • Menopause
  • Naturalistic paradigm
  • Psycho-social paradigm
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