تأثیر هشت هفته تمرینات ایستگاهی بر وزن بدن، فشارخون و سطوح سرمی کلسترول و آنزیم‌های کبدی در زنان سالمند دارای سندرم متابولیک

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: سبک زندگی غیرفعال، یک عامل خطر بسیار مهم برای توسعه بسیاری از بیماری­ها از جمله سندرم متابولیک می­باشد. در سنین پیری علاوه بر مشکلات ناشی از افزایش سن، برخی افراد سالمند دچار بیماری­ سندرم متابولیک می­شوند که شیوع این سندرم در بین زنان بیشتر از مردان می­باشد. شرایط متابولیکی بدن در پیدایش و پیشبرد این بیماری نقش عمده­ای دارند، مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر 8 هفته تمرینات ایستگاهی بر وزن بدن، فشارخون و سطوح سرمی کلسترول و آنزیم­های کبدی در زنان سالمند دارای سندرم متابولیک در خرم­آباد انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعۀ نیمه‌تجربی در سال 1396 بر روی 18 زن سالمند دارای سندرم متابولیک در مرکز توانبخشی فرزانگان خرم­آباد انجام شد. آزمودنی­ها ضمن انجام امور روزمره خود، در یک پروتکل 8 هفته­ای تمرینات ایستگاهی شرکت کردند که 3 جلسه در هفته اجرا می­شد. 24 ساعت قبل از اجرای پروتکل تمرینی و 48 ساعت پس از اتمام پروتکل تمرینی، نمونه خونی از آزمودنی­ها در حالت ناشتا گرفته شد. وزن بدن، فشار خون، کلسترول سرمی و آنزیم‌های کبدی اندازه­گیری شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 24) و آزمون‌های کولموگروف-اسمیرنوف و تی همبسته انجام شد. میزانp کمتر از 05/0 معنی­دار در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته­ها: نتایج کاهش معنی­دار سطوح استراحتی سرمی AST (043/0=p) و کلسترول (033/0=p)، فشارخون سیستولی (001/0=p)، وزن بدن (001/0=p) و شاخص تودۀ بدنی (001/0=p) و کاهش غیرمعنادار سطوح سرمی ALT (487/0=p) در مقایسه با مقادیر پیش‌آزمون در زنان سالمند دارای سندرم متابولیک را نشان داد.
نتیجه­گیری: تمرینات ایستگاهی در زنان سالمند دارای سندرم متابولیک اثرات مفیدی بر سطوح سرمی AST، ALT و کلسترول دارد، همچنین فشارخون سیستولی و وزن بدن را کاهش می­دهد، بنابراین می­تواند تندرستی آنها را ارتقاء دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of 8 weeks of circuit training on body weight, blood pressure, serum Cholesterol levels and liver enzymes in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Nourollahi 1
  • Vahid Valipour Dehnou 2
  • Rasoul Eslami 3
1 M.Sc. student in Exercise Physiology, School of Literature & Human Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.
2 Assistant professor, Department of Sport Sciences, School of Literature & Human Sciences faculty, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.
3 Assistant professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences fculty, Allame Tabatabaee University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Inactive lifestyle is a very important risk factor for the development of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome. In aging, in addition to aging-related problems, some elderly people develop metabolic syndrome, which is more common in women than men. The metabolic conditions of the body play a major role in the emergence and progression of this disease. This study was performed with aim to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of circuit training on body weight, blood pressure and Cholesterol levels and liver enzymes in elderly women with metabolic syndrome in Khorramabad city.
Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed in 2017 on 18 elderly women with metabolic syndrome at Farzanegan rehabilitation center in Khorramabad. During the daily routine activities, the subjects participated in 8-week circuit training protocol which performed 3 sessions per week. The fasting blood sample was taken from the subjects 24 hours before the training protocol and 48 hours after the training protocol. Body weight, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and liver enzymes were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 24) and Kolmogrov-Smirnov and correlated t-test. PResults: The results showed a significant decrease in serum AST (p =.043) and cholesterol (p =.033) levels, systolic blood pressure (p =0.001) and body weight (p =0.001) and BMI (p=0.001), and non-significant decrease in serum levels of ALT (p =0.487) in comparison with pre-test values in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion: The circuit training in elderly women with metabolic syndrome has beneficial effects on serum concentration of AST, ALT and cholesterol; also it reduces systolic blood pressure and body weight, therefore can promote their health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alanine Aminotransferase
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase
  • Elderly Women
  • metabolic syndrome
  1. Valipour Dehnou V, Motamedi R. Assessing and comparing of balance and flexibility among elderly men and women in the age group of 60-79 years. Iran J Age 2018; 13(2):210-21. (Persian).
  2. Esmaeili R, Esmaeili M. Quality of life in the elderly: a meta-synthesis. J Res Religion Health 2018; 4(2):105-16. (Persian).
  3. Poor Reza A, Khabiri Nemati R. Health economics and aging. Iran J Age 2006; 1(6):78-80. (Persian).
  4. Rashedi V, Gharib M, Rezaei M, Yazdani AA. Social support and anxiety in the elderly of Hamedan, Iran. Arch Rehabil 2013; 14(2):110-5. (Persian).
  5. Nikoo M, Gaeini AA, NikBakht H. The physiologic effect of strength and aerobic training in patient of heart and blood. Rehabil J 2009; 10:73-86.
  6. Grundy SM, Brewer Jr HB, Cleeman JI, Smith SC, Lenfant C. Definition of metabolic syndrome: repot of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation 2004; 109(3):433-8.
  7. Pattyn N, Cornelissen VA, Eshghi SR, Vanhees L. The effect of exercise on the cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports Med 2013; 43(2):121-33.
  8. Mohebbi H, Moghadasi M, Rahmani-Nia F, Hassan-Nia S, Noroozi H, Mohebbi H. Association among lifestyle status, plasma adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in obese middle aged men. Brazil J Biom 2009; 3(3):243-52.
  9. Shoorideh Z,BijehN, Khoshraftar YazdiN. The effect of eight weeks of aquatic aerobic training on lipid profile, Glucose, Insulin resistance and Apoprotein A and B in overweight postmenopausal women. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2017; 20(8):89-100. (Persian).
  10. Ahangari M, Kamali M, Arjmand Hesabi M. The study of quality of life in the elderly with hypertension who are member of Tehran senile culture house clubs. Iran J Age 2008; 3(7):26-32. (Persian).
  11. Griffin SE, Robergs RA, Heyward VH. Blood pressure measurement during exercise: a review. Med Sci Sports Exer 1997; 29(1):149-59.
  12. Izadi V, Azadbakht L. Serum adiponectin level and lipid profile (review article). J Health Syst Res 2013; 9(2):114-23. (Persian).
  13. Kravitz L, Heyward V. The exercise & cholesterol controversy. Med Sci Sports Exer 1994; 22:265-74.
  14. Reed J. Blood pressure responses of sedentary African American women during cycle and treadmill exercise. Ethn Dis 2007; 17(1):59-64.
  15. Paoliso G. Effects of physical activity and caloric restriction on blood pressure and serum lipid in overweight men. Hypertetion 2000; 20:533-41.
  16. Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc 2013; 2(1):e004473.
  17. Hurley BF, Hagberg JM, Goldberg AP, Seals DR, Ehsani AA, Brennan RE, et al. Resistive training can reduce coronary risk factors without altering VO2max or percent body fat.Med Sci Sports Exer 1988; 20(2):150-4.
  18. Hunter GR. Overtraining and systolic blood pressure.Int Olympic Lifter 1980; 7(7-9):30-1.
  19. Leutholtz BC. Exercise can reduce incidence and severity of hypertension keep it up to keep it down. ACSMs Health Fitness J 1998; 2(5):36-9.  
  20. Gilders RM, Malicky ES, Falkel JE, Staron RS, Dudley GA. The effect of resistance training on blood pressure in normotensive women.Clin Physiol 1991; 11(4):307-14.
  21. Seo DI, So WY, Ha S, Yoo EJ, Kim D, Singh H, et al. Effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. J Sports Sci Med 2011; 10(1):222-6.
  22. Yektayar M, Mohammadi S, Ahmadi Deharshid K, Khodamoradpour M. Comparison of the effects of resistance, endurance and combined exercises on lipid profile of non- athlete healthy middle aged men. Sci J Kurdistan Med Sci 2010; 16(4):26-36. (Persian)
  23. Wegge JK, Roberts CK, Ngo TH, Barnard RJ. Effect of diet and exercise intervention on inflamnatory and adhesion molecules in postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy and at risk for coronary artery disease. Metabolism 2004; 53(3):377-81.
  24. Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD, Knetzger KJ, Wharton MB, Mc Cartner JS, et al. Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins.N Engl J Med 2003; 347(19):1483-92.
  25. Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, Gordon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(12):2335-41.
  26. Smith JE, Garbutt G, Lopes P, Pedoe DT. Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38(3):292-4.
  27. Mikami T, Sumida S, Ishibashi Y, Ohta S. Endurance exercise training inhibits activity of plasma GOT and liver caspase-3 of mice [correction of rats] exposed to stress by induction of heat shock protein 70. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96(5):1776-81.
  28. Cavas L, Tarhan L. Effects of vitamin-mineral supplementation on cardia marker and radical scavenging enzymes, and MDA levels in young swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr Eexr Metab 2004; 14(2):133-46.
  29. de Sousa MV, Fukui R, Krustrup P, Pereira RM, Silva PR, Rodrigues AC. Positive effects of football on fitness, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Brazilan patients with type 2 diabetes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014; 24(1):56-65.
  30. Zar A, Hosseini SA, Homaion A. Effect of eight-week aquagymnastic training on liver enzymes and lipid profile of middle-aged women. Qom Univ Med Sci J2016; 10(7):29-37. (Persian).
  31. Barzegarzadeh-Zarandi H, Dabidy-Roshan V. Changes in some liver enzymes and blood lipid level following interval and continuous regular aerobic training in old rats. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2012; 14(5):13-23. (Persian). 
  32. Davoodi M, Moosavi H, Nikbakht M. The effect of eight weeks selected aerobic exercise on liver parenchyma and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) of fat liver patients.J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2012; 14(1):84-90. (Persian).
  33. Kaki A, Galedari M. The effect of 12 weeks high intensity interval training and resistance training on liver fat, liver enzymes and insulin resistance in men with nonalcoholic fatty liver. Jundishapur Sci Med J 2017; 16(5):493-505.
  34. Klika B, Jordan C. High-intensity circuit training using body weight: Maximum results with minimal investment. ACSMs Health Fitness J 2013; 17(3):8-13.
  35. Mokhtari F, Esfarjani F, Kargar-Fard M. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women. Feyz 2018; 21(6):57-66. (Persian).
  36. Mokhtari M, Daryanoosh F, Salasi M, Mohammadi M. The effect of 12 weeks aerobic exercise on levels of aplin-12 plasma and blood pressure in hypertensive middle-aged women. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 2015; 17(5):402-8. (Persian).
  37. Arazi H, Jorbonian A, Asghari E. Comparison of concurrent (resistance-aerobic) and aerobic training on VO2max lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure in middle-aged men at risk for cardiovascular disease. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2012; 20(5):527-38. (Persian).
  38. Behjati Ardakani A, Qassemian A, Koushki M, Shakour E, Mehrez A. The effect of a resistance training course on blood pressure and nitric oxide levels in elderly women. Iran J Age 2018; 13(1):16-27. (Persian).
  39. Hashemi M, RahmaniNia F, Azarbayjani MA, Soltani M. The effects of continuous and interval aerobic training on the metabolic syndrome in elderly men. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci 2017; 26(114):69-81. (Persian).
  40. Atashak S, Batourak K, Azizbeigi K. The effect of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome factors and acylated ghrelin in middle-aged women. Razi J Med Sci 2017; 24(159):11-20. (Persian).
  41. Miller BW, Cress CL, Johnson ME, Nichols DH, Schnitzler MA. Exercise during hemodialysis decreases the use of antihypertensive medications. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39(4):828-33.
  42. Shahsanam G, Tofighei A, Samadian Z, Saniei Y, Hajahmadi M. Investigation of tissue and blood indices of liver and metabolic syndrome in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver during 36 sessions of exercise training. J Appl Exer Physiol 2018; 13(26):55-66. (Persian).
  43. Asad MR. The effect of 8 weeks aerobic training, resistance, combination on cholesterol, HDL, LDL and cardio respiratory fitness in obese men. Appl Res Sport Manag 2012; 3:57-64.
  44. Sugiura H, Sugiura H, Kajima K, Mirbod SM, Iwata H, Matsuoka T. Effects of long-term moderate exercise and increase in number of daily steps on serum lipids in women: randomized controlled trial. BMC Womens Health 2002; 2(1):3.
  45. Wilund KR, Feeney LA, Tomayko EJ, Weiss EP, Hagberg JM. Effects of endurance exercise training on markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Physiol Res 2009; 58(4):545-52.
  46. Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoff E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2006; 130(7):2023-30.
  47. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Afendy M, Fang Y, Younossi Y, Mir H, et al. Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9(6):524-30.
  48. Mousavian A, Darvakh H. Effect of combined aerobic exercise on serum level of liver gamma glutamil transferase and glycemic index of middle-aged diabetic women. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2016; 19(14):9-19. (Persian). 
  49. Jamali R, Pourshams A, Amini S, Deyhim MR, Rezvan H, Malekzadeh R. The upper normal limit of serum alanine aminotransferase in Golestan province, northeast of Iran. Arch Iran Med 2008; 11(6):602-7.
  50. Zelber-Sagi S, Nitzan-Kaluski D, Goldsmith R, Webb M, Zvibel I, Goldiner I, et al. Role of leisure‐time physical activity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population‐based study. Hepatology 2008; 48(6):1791-8.
  51. Hallsworth K, Fattakhova G, Hollingsworth KG, Thoma C, Moore S, Taylor R, et al. Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss. Gut 2011; 60(9):1278-83.
  52. Sadeghi S, Asad MR, Ferdowsi MH. The effects of twelve weeks endurance training on liver enzymes in Iranian obese women. Sci J Manag Syst 2017; 15(13):49-60. (Persian). 
  53. Hasani A, Ansari R, Mazani A. Effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training and using chicory extractive supplementation on serum levels of ALT and AST enzymes in women with fatty liver. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2016; 19(10):1-8.
  54. Keating SE, Hackett DA, George J, Johnson NA. Exercise and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol 2012; 57(1):157-66.
  55. de Piano A, de Mello MT, Sanches PD, da Silva PL, Campos RM, Carnier J, et al. Long-term effects of aerobic plus resistance training on the adipokines and neuropeptides in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 24(11):1313-24.