اثر 10 هفته تمرینات پلایومتریک بر قدرت عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین تنه، توده بدون چربی و فاکتور رشد شبه انسولین 1 (IGF-1) در زنان جوان

نوع مقاله: اصیل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تربیت بدنی، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شیروان، شیروان، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه دروس عمومی (رشته تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی)، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: تمرینات پلایومتریک (انفجاری) حرکاتی هستند که در آن ها چرخه کشش- کوتاه شدن به کار می­رود و حرکت کشش عضله (برونگرا)، بلافاصله به‌وسیله حرکت کوتاه شدن سریع (درون‌گرا) دنبال می­شود. با توجه به نقش تمرینات پلایومتریک در هیپرتروفی عضلانی و سنتز پروتئین و در نتیجه افزایش عوامل رشد و آمادگی عضلانی، مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر 10 هفته تمرین پلایومتریک بر قدرت عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین تنه، توده بدون چربی و فاکتور رشد شبه انسولین-1 (IGF-1) در زنان جوان انجام شد.
روش‌کار: این مطالعه کارآزمایی با تخصیص تصادفی در سال 1395 بر روی 28 زن جوان 29-20 سال در شهر مشهد انجام شد. زنان جوان داوطلب شرکت در پژوهش به‌طور تصادفی به دو گروه 14 نفره تمرینات انفجاری و کنترل تقسیم شدند. برنامه تمرینی پژوهش حاضر به مدت 10 هفته و هفته‌ای 3 جلسه اجرا گردید. مدت زمان هر جلسه تمرینی 60-45 دقیقه و شامل 10 دقیقه گرم کردن، 45-30 دقیقه اجرای برنامه تمرینی و 5 دقیقه سرد کردن و انجام حرکات کششی بود. نمونه‌گیری خونی، آزمون قدرت عضلانی بالا‌تنه و پایین‌تنه، حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی و ترکیب بدنی در قبل و بعد از دوره تمرینی انجام شد. گروه کنترل در طول مدت تحقیق، هیچ‌گونه برنامه تمرینی انجام ندادند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده­ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS (نسخه 21) و آزمون­های تی‌مستقل و تی وابسته انجام ﺷﺪ. میزان p‌ کمتر از 05/0 ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ شد.
یافته­ها: بر اساس نتایج مطالعه، قدرت عضلانی بالاتنه، پایین‌تنه و حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی در پایان دوره به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافته بود (05/0>p)، در حالی که فاکتور رشد شبه‌ انسولین 1 (IGF-1)، توده بدون چربی، درصد چربی و شاخص توده بدنی از نظر آماری تغییر معنی‌داری نداشت (05/0<p).
نتیجه‌گیری: برنامه 10 هفته‌ای تمرین پلایومتریک می­تواند باعث افزایش قدرت در عضلات اندام­های بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه و همچنین ظرفیت هوازی زنان جوان گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of 10-week plyometric training program on muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs, lean body mass, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 in young women

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hanifeh Hatami 1
  • Ali Golestani 2
  • Mohammad Ali Sardar 3
1 M.Sc. of Physical Education, Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Bojnourd University, Bojnourd, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of General Courses (Physical Education and Sports Sciences), Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Plyometric training utilizes the stretch-shortening cycle by using a lengthening (eccentric) movement, which is promptly followed by a shortening (concentric) movement. Regarding the role of plyometric exercises in muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis, as well as increasing growth factors and muscle fitness; this study was performed with aim to investigate the effect of plyometric training on muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs, lean body mass and Insulin-like growth factor in young women.
Methods: This randomized trial study was performed on 28 young women aged 20-29 years in Mashhad in 2016. Young women who volunteered to participate in the study were randomly divided into two groups of plyometric training (n=14) and control (n=14). Plyometric training program was performed for 10 weeks (3 days/week, 45 to 60 minutes). Each training session consisted of 10 minute warm up, 30-45 minutes plyometric training for the upper and lower limbs, and 5 minutes cool down. Blood samples, lower and upper limbs strength test, maximum oxygen uptake, and body composition were assessed before and after training period. The control group had no exercise during this period. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 21) and dependent and independent t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The results showed that lower and upper limbs strength and maximum oxygen uptake significantly increased at the end of period (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in Insulin-like growth factor 1, lean body mass, percentage of fat and body mass index (p>0.05).
Conclusion: 10 week plyometric exercises program can increase muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs, and also aerobic capacity of young women.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1
  • Muscle strength
  • Plyometric exercises
  • Women
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